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The Byzantine Empire

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Sydney Tucker

on 7 March 2013

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Transcript of The Byzantine Empire

Eastern Orthodox The Byzantine Empire By: Sydney Tucker and Joseph Ametepe Decline Geography Of the Byzantine Empire Empress Theodora Her Impact The Western Roman Empire was overrun by invading Germanic tribes in the fifth century. During this time however, the roman empire had undergone significant changes.The empire had been divided into the eastern and western empires. The capital had also been moved from Rome to Byzantium (Greek City). This new city would be known as Constantinople.Byzantium is still known as the entire Eastern empire. Theodora is credited with influenced many other developments including some which expanded the rights of women in divorce and property ownership, gave mothers some guardianship rights over their children, and forbid the killing of a wife who committed adultery. Theodora's role in the Byzantine Empire When Justinian met her, she had been converted to monophysitism, a non-orthodox doctrine. He was attracted to her beauty and intelligence. He raised her to the rank of patrician, and in 525 married her. When Justinian succeeded to the throne in 527, she was proclaimed augusta. Constantinople The capital of Rome was originally in Rome. An Emperor named Constantine moved the capital to the Greek city named Byzantium. This became known as Constantinople. Constantinople was located on an elevated rocky peninsula. Sea surrounded Constantinople on all three sides. This natural advantages made it difficult to conquer. Attractions of Constantinople Justinian viewed churches as a connection to his Empire. This Particular Church is called the Hagia Sophia which means "Holy Wisdom" In Greek. Citizens enjoyed entertainment at the Hippodrome. The Hippodrome provided wild chariot racing and other entertaning performances.It held around 60,000 spectators. The Mese or "Middle Way" The Mese was a main street that passed through Constantinople. Merchants filled the streets selling all sorts of products. Products came from the far reaches of Asia, Africa, and Europe. the Smell of Delicacies and produces filled the streets. Emperor Justinian Justinian was initially a high ranking nobleman. Justinian succeeded his uncle for the throne of the Byzantine Empire. Justinian had 3 ambitious goals for the Roman empire.

1. Reconquer Lands to the A men named Belisarius (who was Justinians best general)was sent to recover lost land in North Africa from Germanic tribes. Belsarius recovered the lost land. Rome was under the control of Ostrogoths until Belsarius also regained that territory for Justinian. After countless campaigns the forces of Justinian prevailed and had control over a large portion of the territory Rome had ever ruled. Her Life Although she was an empress, there is little known about Theodora's early life. She became an actress at a young age. Then for a short time she made her living as a wool spinner. 3. Massive Building Program- During this period, crumbling fortifications of Constantinople were rebuilt. a 14-mile stone wall along the coast line of the city was constructed. The Hagia Sophia had been destroyed but thanks to Justinian it was rebuilt and many hailed it as the most splendid church of the Christian world. Aqueducts, schools, law courts, and hospitals were also built during this time period. 2. Simplifying Roman Laws- As Justinian unified the Western and Eastern Empire he proceeded to set up a panel of legal experts to regulate Byzantium's society. After going through 400 years of the Roman law the panel decided to throw away outdated and contradictory laws. Instead they used a uniform code known as the Justinian Code. With the Justinian Code in place it the regulation of whole areas Byzantine life had been established. this code lated the Byzantine empire for 900 years. Hagia Sophia ("Holy Wisdom") Cultural Diffusion of the Byzantine Empire Religion Christianity underwent a dramatic development. Christianity They base their faith on the gospel of Jesus and the Bible
They use sacraments such as baptism
Their religious leaders are priests and bishops
They seek to convert people The East and western parts of Rome began to grow apart competing for converts. The Orthdox church for example took their form of Christianity to the Slavs. The Slavs were on the north part of he Black Sea. Similarities and Differences of Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodox Similarities Roman Catholic Services are conducted in Latin
The pope has authority over all other bishops
The pope claims authority over all kings and emperors
Priests may not marry
Divorce is not permitted Services are conducted in Greek or local languages
The Patriarch and other bishops head the Church as a group
The emperor claims authority over the patriarch and other bishops of the empire
Priests may be married
Divorce is allowed under certain conditions The church of Constantine was the Hagia Sophia. It was also known as the Megale Ekklesia (Great Church). The Hagia Sophia was built by Constantine the great. The construction was not finished until the end of the reign of his son. The history of the Hagia Sophia is quite violent. The first structure of the church was destroyed by riots in 404. The second time it was rebuilt the church was burned down in the Nikia revolt in 532. When Justinian came into power he ordered that the Hagia Sophia be rebuilt. The inside of the Hagia Sophia is filled with glistening mosaic tiles showing Christian figures and scenes. The architectural style is a combination of Byzantine and Roman styles. Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril The most successful Eastern missionaries were Saint Methodius and Saint Cyril. They worked among the Slavs during the 9th century. Slavic languages were made by these two men. With these new alphabet the bible would become easy to read in their own language. A lot of the Slavic languages are made now written as what is called the Cyrillic alphabet. This was the begining of one of of histories most knowing countries; RUSSIA! The Byzantine empire did not fall mainly because of its fortified walls. The Byantines also used bribes like marriages, diplomacy, and military power to distract their enemies. Constantine and Christianity During the Byzantine Empire, Christianity underwent a dramatic development. Christianity had begun to develop differently in the Western and Eastern Roman Empires, due largely to the distance and lack of contact between the two regions. As the Eastern Empire became Byzantium and flourished, those differences grew and ultimately split apart the Church. Constantine thought that the persecution of Christians was disturbing. He had a dream before the Battle of Milvan Bridge. In the dream he saw the Christian symbol of the cross and put it on his shields so God would help them in the battle. Winning the battle, Constantine became a Christian. He believed that God had enabled him to triumph over Maxentius.
Constantine soon realized that the persecutions against the Christians had failed. He saw that it resulted in disharmony which he disliked very much. He also had a deep admiration for the organization and values of the Christians. He believed that their love, charity and mercy would bring about unity and harmony to the Roman Empire. Due to the power and influence of paganism, Constantine proceeded with caution to Christianize the empire. Constantine and Christianity The first crisis began before Justinian's death. It was a disease that resembled what we now know as the bubonic plague. This horrifying illness hit Constantinople in the later years of Justinian's reign. The plague probably arrived from India on ships infested with rats. Justinian's Plague Impact of Invaders In the east the Persians fought another war against the Byzantine Empire in 602-628. In 614 they captured Jerusalem. The Persians then invaded Egypt and Asia Minor. Splitting the Church The primary causes of the Schism were disputes over papal authority. The Pope claimed he held authority over the four Eastern patriarchs, while the four eastern patriarchs claimed that the primacy of the Patriarch of Rome was only honorary, and thus he had authority only over Western Christians. The Schism
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