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基督神人二性

教會歷史一 第9課
by

John Chan

on 21 April 2015

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Transcript of 基督神人二性

vere deus vere homo
俄利根 Origen
腓立比書
幻影論
特土良 Tertullian
sic et apostolus de utraque eius
substantia docet
: Qui factus est; inquit, ex semine David - hic erit homo et filius hominis; Qui definitus est filius dei secundum spiritum - hic erit deus, et sermo dei filius: videmus duplicem statum, non confusum sed coniunctum, in
una persona
deum et hominem Iesum. de Christo autem differo. et adeo
salva est utriusque

proprietas substantiae
, ut et spiritus res suas egerit in illo, id est virtutes et opera et signa, et caro passiones suas functa sit, esuriens sub diabolo, sitiens sub Samaritide, flens Lazarum, anxia usque ad mortem, denique et mortua est. (Adv. Prax. 27,11)
Thus does the apostle also teach respecting His
two substances
, saying, who was made of the seed of David; Romans 1:3 in which words He will be Man and Son of Man. Who was declared to be the Son of God, according to the Spirit; in which words He will be God, and the Word— the Son of God. We see plainly the twofold state, which is not confounded, but conjoined in
One Person
— Jesus, God and Man. Concerning Christ, indeed, I defer what I have to say. (I remark here), that
the property of each nature

is so wholly preserved
, that the Spirit on the one hand did all things in Jesus suitable to Itself, such as miracles, and mighty deeds, and wonders; and the Flesh, on the other hand, exhibited the affections which belong to it. It was hungry under the devil's temptation, thirsty with the Samaritan woman, wept over Lazarus, was troubled even unto death, and at last actually died.
sermo in carne
videmus
duplicem statum
,
non confusum sed coniunctum
,
in una persona deum et hominem Iesum
. de Christo autem differo. et adeo salva est utriusque
proprietas substantiae
, ut et spiritus res suas egerit in illo, id est virtutes et opera et signa, et caro passiones suas functa sit, esuriens sub diabolo, sitiens sub Samaritide, flens Lazarum, anxia usque ad mortem, denique et mortua est.
We see plainly
the twofold state
,
which is not confounded, but conjoined in One Person— Jesus, God and Man.
Concerning Christ, indeed, I defer what I have to say. (I remark here), that the property of each nature is so wholly preserved, that the Spirit on the one hand did all things in Jesus suitable to Itself, such as miracles, and mighty deeds, and wonders; and the Flesh, on the other hand, exhibited the affections which belong to it. It was hungry under the devil's temptation, thirsty with the Samaritan woman, wept over Lazarus, was troubled even unto death, and at last actually died.
現象上的「是」
Person


兩種本質在一個位格上

耶穌基督
10.耶穌⾏神績,是因着的神性
1.我喜歡上教史課
2.耶穌基督不是神
3.耶穌基督是⼈
4.耶穌升天後就不再是⼈
5.耶穌本是人,然後神立爲基督
7.耶穌作爲「⼈」承担釘十架
6.耶穌基督擁有人的靈魂
8.耶穌基督是神與人的混合
9.「耶穌哭了」,是出於他的人性
God
世界
logos
耶穌

基督


Logos

soul


logos
sarx
帖前5:23
又願你們的靈與魂與身子得蒙保守,在我們主耶穌基督降臨的時候,完全無可指摘!

soul

soul
anima mediatri
三一論
肉體
你有靈魂嗎?
yes!
yes!
yes!
yes!
yes!
yes!
yes!
.......
道—肉基督論
Logos-Sarx Christology
亞他那修
靈魂

Logos


sarx

聖靈是神


Incarnation
拯救
神化
基督是神
永恆

只是拯救與啓示的工具
Whence it was that, when the flesh suffered, the Word was not external to it; and therefore is the passion said to be His: and when He did divinely His Father’s works, the flesh was not external to Him, but in the body itself did the Lord do them. ......
because He had a body, not in appearance, but in truth; and it became the Lord, in putting on human flesh
, to put it on whole with the affections proper to it; that, as we say that the body was His own, so also we may say that the affections of the body were proper to Him alone, though they did not touch Him according to His Godhead. If then the body had been another’s, to him too had been the affections attributed; but if the flesh is the Word’s (for ‘the Word became flesh’), of necessity then the affections also of the flesh are ascribed to Him, whose the flesh is. And to whom the affections are ascribed, such namely as to be condemned, to be scourged, to thirst, and the cross, and death, and the other infirmities of the body, of Him too is the triumph and the grace. For this cause then, consistently and fittingly such affections are ascribed not to another, but to the Lord; that the grace also may be from Him, and that we may become, not worshippers of any other, but truly devout towards God, because we invoke no originate thing,
no ordinary man
, but the natural and true Son from God, who has become man, yet is not the less Lord and God and Saviour. (Orat. c. Arian. III,32)
But now, since the Word of God, by whom all things came to be, endured to become also Son of man, and humbled Himself, taking a servant’s form, therefore to the Jews the Cross of Christ is a scandal, but to us Christ is ‘God’s power’ and ‘God’s wisdom;’ for ‘the Word,’ as
John says, ‘became flesh’

(it being the custom of Scripture to call man by the name of ‘flesh,’ as it says by Joel the Prophet, ‘I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh
;’ and as Daniel said to Astyages, ‘I do not worship idols made with hands, but the Living God, who hath created the heaven and the earth, and hath sovereignty over all flesh;’ for both he and
Joel call mankind flesh
). (Orat. c. Arian. III,30)
耶穌沒有靈魂
道成了「肉身」
ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο
神不是成了人,而是成了肉身
道—人基督論
Logos-Anthropos Christology
Logos




sarx
God in Man
human hypostasis
divine hypostasis


靈魂
?
physis
/nature/
substantia
substantia
hypostasis
hypostasis
prosopon
(persona)
prosopon
(persona)
安提柯學派
亞歷山太學派
Einigungschristologie
Trennungschristologie
2 hypostasis
1 Prosopon
兩個位格,兩個人,兩個基督 two Christus
「我」是道路、真理、生命
Cyril of Alexandria
one nature
φύσις
【Characteristics or attributes」】
特性、屬性
觀察性、描述性的功能特點
休息


God in Man
異端




神性
從本體性的討論轉到非本體性的討論
人性
神性
人性
不是神、不是人的怪物
Jesus
政治
Nestorius
428-430
431
以弗所會議
451
迦克墩會議
迦克墩信經
我們跟隨聖教父,同心合意教人宣認同一位子,我們的主耶穌基督,是神性完全人性亦完全者;他真是上帝,也真是人,具有理性的靈魂,也具有身體;

按神性,他與父同體,按人性,他與我們同體,在凡事上與我們一樣,只是沒有罪;按神性,在萬世之先,為父所生,按人性,在挽近時日,為求拯救我們,由上帝之母,童女馬利亞所生;

是同一基督,是子,是主,是獨生的,具有二性 (two natures),
不相混亂(inconfusedly),不相交換(unchangeably)

不能分開(indivisibly),不能離散(inseparably)

二性的區別不因聯合而消失,各性的特點反得以保存,會合於一個位(one person),一個實質;而並非分離成為兩個位格,卻是同一位子,獨生的,道上帝,主耶穌基督;

正如先知論到他自始所宣講的,主耶穌基督自己所教訓我們的,諸聖教父的信經所傳給我們的。
涅斯多留
涅斯多留在以弗所議會被定為異端!
區利羅
上帝之母的爭論
theotokos
基督之母
上帝之母
基督一性論
Monophysitism
基督二性論
Dyophysitism
強調基督耶穌的合一
強調基督耶穌的分別
馬利亞只是耶穌肉身的母親,而不是耶穌神性的母親
神子的肉體是真實感受到痛苦
爲什麼
?
你認爲誰對呢?
第三次大公會議
基督一性論
基督二性論
景教
第一次大公會議
第二次大公會議
尼西亞會議
325
君士坦丁堡會議
381
Council of Chalcedon
人性

神性

強盜會議
one person two natures
Pope Leo
the Great
(440-461)
教皇擁有教會裁判權
Ecclesiastical jurisdiction
.....After the reading of the foregoing epistle, the most reverend bishops cried out: This is the faith of the fathers, this is the faith of the Apostles.
So we all believe, thus the orthodox believe.
Anathema to him who does not thus believe.
Peter has spoken thus through Leo. So taught the Apostles. Piously and truly did Leo teach
, so taught Cyril. Everlasting be the memory of Cyril. Leo and Cyril taught the same thing, anathema to him who does not so believe. This is the true faith. Those of us who are orthodox thus believe. This is the faith of the fathers. Why were not these things read at Ephesus [i.e. at the heretical synod held there]? These are the things Dioscorus hid away. (Labbe and Cossart, Concilia, Tom. IV., col. 368)
451 迦克墩會議
The Tome of Leo
13 June 449
基督神人二性
First "Pope"
One Nature—the Logos Incarnate, of the full humanity and full divinity
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coptic_Orthodox_Church_of_Alexandria
迦克墩會議後
基督一性論
發展
他本有 神的形像,不以自己與 神同等為強奪的;
反倒虛己,取了奴僕的形像,成為人的樣式;
既有人的樣子,就自己卑微,存心順服,以至於死,且死在十字架上。
阿流主義 Arianus
阿波里拿留主義 Apollianarianism
Christ
分離基督論
合一基督論
支持基督一性論的東方教會領袖幾乎全數出席,共有198位主教。反對基督一性論的西方教會卻因沒有充足時間到達會場,導致代表寥寥無幾。幾天後,會議結果是:基督一性論被通過成爲當時正統教義。

這次會議,教會歷史稱之爲「強盜會議」 (the Robber Council of Ephesus)
https://www.facebook.com/coptichk/photos/pb.332534533496552.-2207520000.1416365225./550220081727995/?type=3&theater
Love was when God became a man,
Locked in time and space, without rank or place;
Love was God born of Jewish kin;
Just a carpenter with some fishermen;
Love was when Jesus walked in history,
Lovingly He brought a new life that's free,
Love was God nailed to bleed and die
To reach and love one such as I.

Love was when God became a man,
Down where I could see love that reached to me;
Love was God dying for my sin
And so trapped was I my whole world caved in.
Love was when Jesus met me, now it's real;
Lovingly He came, I can feel He's real!
Love was God, only He would try
To reach and love one such as I.
上帝因著這世界甘願被迫害到十架上。
在這世上,上帝是無能的、軟弱的。
但正僅僅如此,他與我們在一起,並幫助我們。
馬太福音八17節清楚説明這點:
基督不是依藉他的全能幫助我們,
而是藉著他的軟弱與苦難!

這正是與世上所有宗教的關鍵分別所在:
人的宗教性指引人進到他的困難與在世間神的大能,
神是 deus ex machina(所謂:機器啤出來的神)。
但聖經卻指引人進入上帝的苦難與無能:
只有苦能的上帝才能作出幫助。

這正與宗教者的期望完全相反。
人被呼召在不信上帝的世代一同經歷上帝的苦難。
Dietrich Bonhoeffer
潘霍華
後話
基督一意志論
基督二意志論
https://www.facebook.com/theologia.autumnitas/photos/pb.195140547362053.-2207520000.1416367850./216118628597578/?type=3&theater
https://www.facebook.com/theologia.autumnitas/photos/pb.195140547362053.-2207520000.1416367850./212946972248077/?type=3&theater
耶穌屈機嗎?
哭了出來,會好一點
communicatio idiomatum
communication of property
本性互換
聖餐同在的問題
Where is Jesus Christ?
Extra calvinisticum
Ubiquity of Christ
Full transcript