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Transcript of BF Skinner
(1904-1990) Earned his Master's degree & Doctorate from Harvard
Psychologist: worked on ideas of human behavior
Was once the chairman of the psychology at Indiana University & later taught at Harvard
Developed the theory of behaviorism
Is known as one of the most "published psychologists." He has written several books, and hundreds of articles on behavior theory, reinforcement, and learning theory. Behaviorism Based on the work of Edward Thorndike
Skinner thought that "the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences."
Behavior that is reinforced is usually repeated, while behavior that is not dies out Three Responses that Follow Behavior Neutral operants
responses from the environment
has no effect on whether or not the behavior is repeated
response is from the environment which increases the chances of the behavior being repeated
can be positive or negative
responses which decrease the chance of a behavior being repearted.
Punishment is supposed to weaken behavior Operant Conditioning: to change behavior by the use of reinforcement which should be given after the desired behavior Classical Conditioning Very similar to operant conditioning
Proposed by John Watson
Based on Pavlov's observations
Said that speech and emotional responses were patterns of stimulus and response
Classical conditioning involves learning new behaviors from association
when two stimuli are linked together to produce a new response (learned). Classical Vs. Operant Conditioning Classical
Antecedent driven: events that take place before target behavior
Learning takes place when associations are made between two stimuli that are unrelated Operant
Consequence driven: events that take place after target behavior
Learning takes place when desired behavior id affected by its consequences Operant Theory Used in the Classroom References Pros & Cons to Operant Theory Operant Theory Used on TV: "The Big Bang Theory" Heffner, C. (2011). Psychology biographies. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/biographies/skinner.html
Mcleod, S. A. (2007). Skinner-operant conditioning. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Skinner, B. F. (1969). Contingencies of reinforcement. Appleton-Century-Crofts. Retrieved from
http://stoa.usp.br/vahs/files/-1/16172/Skinner, B. F. Operant Behavior.pdf
Skinner, B. F. (1981). Selection by consequences. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.uiowa.edu/classes/31174/documents/selection by consequences.pdf Teachers use the operant theory often in the classroom. Examples of this might include:
Testing of skills
Positive and negative reinforcement
Rewards (sticker systems, good behavior charts, homework passes, extra credit)
Weekly tests/quizzes Pros:
Can be applied to students with behavioral issues or disorders
Based on observations, therefore data and research can be collected
Doesn't account for other ways of learning without reinforcement