Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

FINAL DISSERTATION DEFENSE

DISSERTATION NOV 17 2011 FEB 17 2012
by

Dr. Danielle Sweat Whylly

on 23 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of FINAL DISSERTATION DEFENSE

A 2004 study by The Pew Center on the States found that nearly 50% of U.S. offenders return to prison within 3 years of their release (Pew Center on the States, 2011). A STUDY OF THE NON-TRADITIONAL FACTORS OF AN
EX-FELON REHABILITATION PROGRAM IN THE
EUROPEAN COUNTRY OF UKRAINE According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), at least 95% of all State prisoners will be released back into their communities at some point in time (Hughes & Wilson, 2002). As of 2009
The U.S. held the highest incarceration rate in the world (The Sentencing Project, 2011). FYI:
The Soviet Union's incarceration rate was lower Chapter 1 ~ Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses
Significance of the Study In addition to the common concerns of limited work experience, education or relevant technical skills, and family support; many offenders struggle with mental illness or addiction. The stigma of a prison record only creates additional employment and housing barriers for ex-felons (Ibid). Government agencies have begun looking to faith-based organizations for service provision in areas such as mentoring, employment training and counseling (Bassford, 2008). According to Daggett et al (2008), existing literature suggests that recidivism can be reduced by participation in structured religious programs. In fact, the Task Force for Faith-based & Community Initiatives (2008) reported over $88 million in federal funding to prisoner reentry programming over a 4-year period. Problem 1... And Another... Yet Another... Here's why that's important to note... The Dissertation Defense of Danielle Sweat Whylly Chapter 2 ~ Review of Literature
Ex-felon Reentry in the U.S.
Faith-based Rehabilitation Programs
in the U.S.
Ex-Felon Rehabilitation and the
European Country of Ukraine
Theoretical Framework Chapter 3 - Methodology
Research Design
Description of the Site
Sample and Population
Instrumentation
Treatment of Data
Limitations of the Study That's about 650,000 prisoners being released annually in the United States 748 prisoners per 100,000 people 660 prisoners per 100,000 people Research Questions & Hypotheses That's over $22 million per year... Programs & Services Funded: post-release services
anti-gang initiatives
weed & seed programs
workforce development
bonding programs
substance abuse treatment
mental health treatment residential reentry centers
faith-based initiatives
program contractors
one stop career centers
HIV testing
ex-offender veteran programs Between 2 federal agencies alone... The primary purpose
of this study was to explain the
nontraditional (faith-based) factors that
ex-felons found most helpful in their process
of successfully reintegrating into communities in Kiev, Ukraine. This study was also designed to explain how participants in Embassy of God's Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation center were
successfully reintegrated. Based on the findings, recommendations for U.S. policy makers were provided for consideration in how to efficiently
and effectively support faith-based
programs seeking to reduce
recidivism in the
United States. According to the U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), at least 95% of all State prisoners will be released back into their communities at some point in time (Hughes & Wilson, 2002). Research Questions... 1. Do ex-felons respond better to the prospect of
spiritual transformation than the fear of
punishment?
2. Does the structure of the adaptation and
rehabilitation process reduce recidivism?
3. Is there an association between ex-felons
staying out of prison and having their sense of
self-worth restored through Center
participation? Limitations of this study... 1. The lack of peer reviewed articles available on reintegration of
ex-felons {or ex-prisoners} in Kiev, Ukraine;
2. The recent restructuring of Eastern European society, in which Kiev,
Ukraine is located--having 20 years of independence from the
communist rule of the U.S.S.R. {or the Soviet Union};
3. Use of survey instrument translation from English to Ukrainian and
Russian, when necessary; and
4. The unknown nuances of an international program and people group. For the purpose of this study, the following terms are defined for collective understanding: ex felon reintegration misdemeanor recidivism Significance of the Study ~ Ex-felons need to have a support system
~ Millions of dollars in federal funding spent
~ Programs expected to do a lot with very little
~ U.S. taxpayers are paying the price on both ends
~ Recidivism and incarceration rates too high
~ Barriers to reentry are too challenging for ex-felons and service providers to overcome
~ Faith-based programs need to be equipped
with a proven model of success
~ Traditional deterrence ineffective
~ Community safety 650,000 prisoners released annually, and the number continues to increase (Bassford, 2008)
Nearly 450,000 ex-felons commit additional crimes annually, and return to prison following their initial release, qualifying them as repeat offenders (Bassford, 2008)
Among prison releases, between 1994 and 2007 approximately 50% of ex-offenders return to prison (Hughes & Wilson, 2002; Pew Center on the States, 2011)
Several studies have shown that approximately two-thirds of released offenders are rearrested within three years of their initial release, for mostly felonies (Bassford, 2008; International Institute for Alcohol Awareness, 2006; Brown, 2011)
Reentry barriers include few employment opportunities, employment restrictions and lack of training, scarce resources in low-income communities, unaffordable housing, discrimination, access to healthcare or affordable healthcare, public resentment and mistrust, broken family ties, destroyed relationships, prior addictions and/or mental health issues, technological and societal advancements beyond their comprehension, and state and federal laws created to restrict ex-felons (Bassford, 2008; International Institute for Alcohol Awareness, 2006) According to the Literature... For the purposes of this study, four major theoretical frameworks were considered:
1. The biopsychosocial-spiritual model (Lysne &
Wachholtz, 2011);
2. The ecological model (Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008);
3. Existence, Relatedness, and Growth (ERG) Theory
(Alderfer, 1969 and 1972); and
4. Abraham Maslow's (1943, 1954) Theory of Human
Motivation and the Hierarchy of Needs. The Theoretical Framework This study employs an explanatory research design
to explain some of the nontraditional factors that former ex-felon program participants found most helpful in their successful rehabilitation.
An 18 question Likert Scale survey instrument was administered to measure the ex-felon’s perception of successful rehabilitation factors. The sample population consists of men and women who are former ex-felon participants in the Embassy of God's Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation project, and were released from prison prior to February 1, 2009.

Respondents (89) were delimited to those who had not been rearrested, reconvicted, or returned to prison during the three-year period immediately following their release.

A purposive and non-probability convenience sampling procedure was employed, based on former program participants acknowledging experience as a convicted felon. Statistical treatment of the data employed descriptive statistics, which included frequency distributions, means, and percentages.

A frequency distribution was used to develop a demographic profile of the respondents and cross tabulations were used to demonstrate the association between ex-felon's staying out of prison and having their sense of self-worth restored. Research Question 1:
Do ex-felons respond better to the prospect of spiritual transformation than the fear of punishment?

Hypothesis 1:
Ex-felons respond better to the prospect of spiritual transformation than the fear of punishment. Reentry requirements include housing, employment, identification, transportation, substance abuse, health or mental health treatment, relationship development, food and clothing (Bassford, 2008)
Major barriers to ex-felon self-sufficiency make successful reentry an insurmountable feat (Bassford, 2008)
The prison population has had a higher rate of AIDS infections than the general population since 1991 (Jacob Arriola, Braithwaite, Holmes, & Fortenberry, 2007)
Government agencies have begun looking to faith-based organizations for service provision in areas such as mentoring, employment training and counseling (Bassford, 2008)
Successful reentry programs have numerous benefits, not only for the community but for the ex-felon as well, such as protecting the community from chances of future victimization, ensuring that ex-felons pay restitution and meet parole requirements, and helps reduce the rate of continued substance abuse and mental health incidences (Bassford, 2008; International Institute for Alcohol Awareness, 2006)
Threats to public safety, cycle of crime and victimization, and draining already scarce community resources are common concerns around ex-felon reentry (Bassford, 2008)
Research shows that with strong support systems in place to help meet basic needs for housing, employment, and access to medical and mental health services, etc., ex-felons may become less likely to engage in illegal and unhealthy behavior upon release (Jacob Arriola, Braithwaite, Holmes, & Fortenberry, 2007) More Literature Suggests... More Literature Suggests... Historically, an ex-felon’s transition after incarceration depended significantly on the length and type of confinement (low-high security, solitary confinement, etc.), and access to adequate treatment, counseling or healthcare (Taxman et al, 2003)
The first month is the most critical period for a released inmate (Jacob Arriola, Braithwaite, Holmes, & Fortenberry, 2007)
The prison system fails to adequately prepare prisoners for community reentry (International Institute for Alcohol Awareness, 2006)
State spending for corrections totals $52 billion annually, which is only second to state spending on Medicaid (Pew Center on the States, 2011)
But does the burden of successful reentry belong to families, communities, or the government? After all, the penitentiary was not designed as a treatment facility, but as a place to warehouse deviant members of society in need of punishment because of retribution for violating the law (Bassford, 2008) This study was conducted internationally, through the Embassy of God, Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation project administrators, who are located in Kiev, which is the capital and largest city of Ukraine.

Survey respondents were located throughout the European region. Chapter 4 - Presentation of Findings
Demographic Data
Research Questions & Hypotheses
Spiritual Transformation
Reducing Recidivism
Restoration of Self-Worth Chapter 5 - Conclusions and Recommendations ...but why? But... Studies are being conducted on the Embassy of God because, as the largest church in Europe, it is transforming the lives of so many people who have been destroyed by social evils, addictions, crime and sexual promiscuity through rehabilitation, conversion, restoration and faith, which is much more than just clinical counseling and finding shelter or jobs (Asamoah-Gyadu, 2008)
The church was established in 1989 by a Nigerian immigrant, Pastor Sunday Adelaja (Levy, 2011)
By 1994, the church began operating inside local prisons, ministering to over 100,000 inmates (Levy, 2011; Adelaja, 2012)
By 2001, the Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation Center for ex-felons was fully functioning as a non-profit organization, and without any government support; began providing housing, food, clothing, and spiritual training to released inmates for a period of 3 months to 2 years (Levy, 2011; Adelaja, 2012)
The rehabilitation efforts of the 200+ Embassy of God ministries are a compliment to government action, but in many cases, a relief where government actions (or inaction) have failed (Asamoah-Gyadu, 2008)
Since 2001, more than 10,000 ex-felons have gone through the Embassy of God’s Adaptation and Social Rehabilition Center (Adelaja, 2012)
The model focuses of ex-felon rehabilitation, training, spiritual transformation and restoration (Adelaja, 2012)
This one church prides itself on taking ‘social work’ to another level within the Christian community (Asamoah-Gyadu, 2006; Levy, 2011; Social Ministry Embassy of God Church, n.d.) One of the leading speculations about the successful reentry efforts of faith-based organizations is attributed to their focus on the internal person, more so than the external factors (Serin, Lloyd, & Hanby, 2010)
Internal measures are identified as attitudes, beliefs, personality and a personal commitment to change (Serin, Lloyd, & Hanby, 2010)
External factors such as a supportive community, positive relationships and proactive supervision have been associated with recidivism reduction (Serin, Lloyd, & Hanby, 2010)
External motivation, namely community supervision with correlating consequences for violations, has not proven to be an effective method for reducing recidivism (Knollenberg & Martin, 2008) Research has shown

communities must rely on other nontraditional methods to promote reintegration

(Knollenberg & Martin, 2008) Various techniques to enforce community control that do not stop ex-offenders from returning to lifestyles of continued or occasional crime:

ankle monitoring
random drug testing
more intensive supervisory practices
increase contact between community supervisors
years of regularly scheduled visitations with a probation officer

(Knollenberg & Martin, 2008) $$$$$ $$ Why study Embassy of God? Why is Ukraine significant? Collectively, the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world, with a diverse population of more than 100 nationalities represented (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2011)
Ukraine was one of the fifteen soviet socialist republics (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics or U.S.S.R.), which existed from 1917 to 1992
Under this communist leadership, the political, economic and social environment was very authoritative and a criminal justice system was nonexistent during this era (Solomon, 1987)
Atheism was mandated during the oppressive rule of the Soviet Union (Levy, 2011)
Today, Ukraine is its own country, located in Eastern Europe, with an estimated population of over 45.8 million people (Menon & Motyl, 2011)
Ukraine is currently experiencing a growing economic crisis involving a failing banking industry, $105 billion in corporate and government debt, and a longstanding struggle over gasoline with neighboring Russia; regional discord; and stubborn political leadership that is contributing to the instability of the country through corrupt dealings and seemingly oppressive practices (Karatnycky & Motyl, 2009; Menon & Motyl, 2011)
The central principle of Christianity is a newness of life or transformation from the old to the new, and when faithful, the church has been known to be an engine for social change in the world (Wolfer, 2011) (Lysne & Wachholtz, 2011) (Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008) Biopsychosocial-Spiritual Model Ecological Model ERG Theory (Alderfer, 1969 and 1972) and Theory of Human Motivation and the Hierarchy of Needs(Maslow, 1943 & 1954) Surveys were translated
Emailed to program administrators
Administrators emailed former program participants, who printed, completed & emailed back Section I consisted of demographic information

Section II measured the rehabilitation factors leading to successful reintegration "A Survey of Ex-Felons in the
Social Adaptation and Rehabilitation Project" Table 1
Demographic Profile of Study Respondents Table 1 (continued)
Demographic Profile of Study Respondents Table 1 (continued)
Demographic Profile of Study Respondents Table 1 (continued)
Demographic Profile of Study Respondents Table 1 (continued)
Demographic Profile of Study Respondents Research Questions & Hypotheses Research Question 2:
Does the structure of the adaptation and rehabilitation process reduce recidivism?

Hypothesis 2:
The structure of the adaptation and rehabilitation process significantly reduces recidivism. Research Question 3:
Is there an association between ex-felons staying out of prison and having their sense of self-worth restored through Center participation?

Hypothesis 3:
There is a statistically significant relationship between ex-felons staying out of prison and having their sense of self-worth restored through Center participation. Research Questions & Hypotheses 97.7% indicated that they responded better to the prospect of spiritual transformation than the fear of punishment;
96.5% reduced their chances of returning to prison based on the structure of the program; and
95.2% experienced restoration of their self-worth and help staying out of prison through participating in this program.

It is concluded that the nontraditional factors employed by the Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation Center for ex-felons in the European country of Ukraine significantly contributed to successful reintegration of, on average, an overwhelming majority (96.5%) of the ex-felon respondents. In Sum... Recommendations... 1.Comparative research on the recidivism rate in Ukraine and in the Embassy of God program should be conducted, in an effort to compare the number of Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation Center participants that return to prison with the overall rate in which the general population of ex-felons return to prison.

2.Policy makers should pilot and/or encourage the use of comparative research that employs faith-based ex-felon reentry in the U.S. to determine if programs utilizing a spiritual transformation process similar to the Embassy of God’s Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation Center model experience more reduced rates of recidivism than the programs that do not employ a spiritual transformation process.

3.Philanthropists and federal, state, and local government entities that offer funding to faith-based ex-felon reentry programs should discontinue the restrictions that prohibit the use of funding for “inherently religious activities” such as prayer, worship, bible study, spiritual counseling, evangelism, and the like.

4.Faith-based organizations should employ a biopsychosocial-spiritual model similar to the Embassy of God’s Adaptation and Social Rehabilitation Center when working with this population, to ensure that they receive adequate services that focus on the core of their deviant behavior through a spiritual transformation process that occurs from the inside out.

5.Faith-based organizations working specifically with ex-felon reentry should become more self-sufficient in order to maintain autonomous program services that are free to engage in spiritual transformation without fiscal oversight and usage limitations from the U.S. government.

6.Social workers should become advocates for faith-based social work in ex-felon reentry in order to move from the traditional biopsychosocial model, to the more contemporary and internally transformative biopsychosocial-spiritual model.

7.Public awareness campaigns should be increased to educate the general public on faith-based practices in ex-felon reentry that research has shown to be successful, in order for the public to become more involved in financial, in-kind, and/or voluntary support of these efforts to create safer communities.
Full transcript