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Mitosis & Meiosis and Human Genetic Disorders
Transcript of Mitosis & Meiosis and Human Genetic Disorders
Human Genetic Disorders What is Mitosis?? Mitosis produces two daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. If the parent cell is haploid, then the daughter cell will be hapliod. If the parent cell is diploid, the daughter cell will also be diploid. Interphase:
Chromosomes are not visible because they are uncoiled. Prophase:
The Chromosomes coil. The nuclear membrane disintegrates. Spindle fibers form. the cell has 8 chromosomes. Each chromosomes has 2 chromatids for a total of 16 chromatids. Metaphase:
The chromosomes become aligned in the middle of the cell. Anaphase:
The chromosomes separate; the number of chromosomes double. G1 Interphase:
The Chromosomes have one Chromatid. G2 Interphase:
The Chromosomes have two chromatides each. Telophase:
The cell divides into two. The chromosomes uncoil, then the nucleus reforms. The spindle apparataus disassembles. What is Meiosis? Meiosis produces daughter cells that have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Meisos enables organisms to produce sexually. Meisos involves two divisions producing a total of four daughter cells. Daughter Cells:
The cell that results from the reproduction division of one cell during mitosis or meiosis. Human Genetic disordors During Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II the steps are repeated as the same way in prophase I- Telophase I, with half as much genetic material. First Division of Meiosis: Prophase I:
Duplicated chromatin condenses. Each Chromosome consists of two, closely associated sister chromatids. Crossing-over can occur. Metaphase I:
Homologous chromosomes align at the middle of the cell. Anaphase I:
Homologous pairs separate with sister chromatids remaining togther. Telophase I:
Two daughter cells are formed with each daughter containing only one chromosomes of the homologous pair. Second division of Meiosis: Gemete Formation: Prophase II:
DNA does not replicate. Metaphase II:
Chromosomes align at the middle of the cell. Anaphase II:
Centromeres divide and sister chromatids migrate seperately to each pole. Telophase II:
Cell division is complete. Four daughter cells are obtained. A genetic disorder is a disease caused by abnormalities in an individual's genetic material. The Four Different types of genetic disorders are: 1. Single-gene 2.Multifactorial 4. Chromosomal 3. Mitochondrial Single-gene:
This type is caused by changes or mutations that occur in the DNA sequence of one gene. There are more than 6,000 known single-gene disorders,which occur in about 1 out of every 200 births Multifactorial:
This type is caused by a combination of environmental factors and mutations in multiple genes. Multifactorial inheritance also is associated with traits such as fingerprint patterns, height, eye color, and skin color.
Because chromosomes are carriers of genetic material, such as abnormalities in chromosome structure as missing or extra copies or gross breaks and rejoining can result in disease. Down syndrome is a common disorder that occurs when a person has three copies of chromosome 21. Mitochondrial:
This rare type of genetic disorder is caused by mutations in the nonchromosomal DNA of mitochondrial. njdfsh;