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Alyssa Tripp

on 21 January 2013

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Transcript of Fungi

The Kingdom Fungi By: Alyssa Tripp Pucciniomycotina Pilobolus Actinomucor Actinomucor elegans can be found on dung and soil where it is widespread but not often encountered. It can also be isolated from some Asian fermented foods, other fungi, and plant material . Actinomucor elegans is one of the mucoraceous fungi used to make “Chinese cheese” or Sufu. The soybean cheese is a food product produced by fermentation of soy proteins with mold fungi. There are many types of mold fungi that can be used to produce sufu; when the mold is growing on the tofu, its hyphae produces enzymes that gradually break down the protein and lipid components of the tofu. These fermentation by-products are the source of sufu’s sweet and peculiar flavors. The hyphae of the A. elegans are white when grown on the tofu, tightly bundled and firmly rooted. The sufu produced from this mold are flavorful and smooth textured, making it an excellent fungi choice for making sufus. A unique spore dispersal strategy for the Mucorales is exhibited by the dung fungus Pilobolus, whose name literally means 'the hat thrower'. The entire black sporangium is explosively shot off of the top of the sporangiophore up to distances of several meters. The subdivision Agaricomycotina, also known as the hymenomycetes, is one of three subphylum of the Basidiomycota. The Agaricomycotina contain some 20,000 species, and about 98% of these are in the class Agaricomycetes, which consists of most of the fungi known as mushrooms, including the bracket fungi and puffballs. Species in the Agaricomycotina that are not Agaricomycetes include the jelly fungi, certain "yeasts", ear fungi, and others; these are gathered together as the classes Tremellomycetes and Dacrymycetes. Fungi Gas Exchange Circulation in Fungi Digestion Reproduction Common Structures Zygomycotes (Rhizopus stolonidera) Bread mould is made up of two different forms of hypahe . Horizontal hypahe stolons and downward growing hypahe called rhizoids. Rhizoids secrete enzymes that digest the surrounding food. Following this, a thick wall develops around the zygospore until favorable conditions occur. It then absorbs water and undergoes meiosis The fungi particularly are chemoheterotrophic nutrient absorbers (absorptive heterotrophs). They must obtain preformed organic molecules from the environment and modify them. Fungi have complete extracellular digestion. This means that fungi live in their food and digest the food that surrounds their bodies.Fungi secrete powerful enzymes that enable the cells to digest organic matter in their environment, breaking down large molecules into smaller ones. The cells then absorb the nutrient molecules through their cell membranes. Because the actual digestive process takes place outside the organism's body. There is considerable variation in the structure, size, and complexity of various fungal species. For example, fungi include the microscopic yeasts, the molds seen on contaminated bread, and the common mushrooms. Molds consist of long fine, branching, usually colourless threads called hyphae.
Each fungus will have vast numbers of these hyphae, all intertwining to make up a tangled web called the mycelium. In some molds, the cytoplasm passes through and among cells of the hypha uninterrupted by cross walls. These fungi are said to be coenocytic fungi. Those fungi that have cross walls are called septate fungi, since the cross walls are called septa. Yeasts are microscopic, unicellular fungi with a single nucleus and eukaryotic organelles. They reproduce asexually by a process of budding.
Some species of fungi have the ability to shift from the yeast form to the mold form and vice versa. These fungi are dimorphic. Many fungal pathogens exist in the body in the yeast form but revert to the mold form in the laboratory when cultivated.
Reproduction in yeasts usually involves spores. Spores are produced by either sexual or asexual means. Asexual spores may be free and unprotected at the tips of hyphae, where they are called conidia. Asexual spores may also be formed within a sac, in which case they are called sporangiospores.
Most fungi grow at an acidic pH of about 5.0, although some species grow at lower and higher pH levels. Most fungi grow at about 25°C (room temperature) except for pathogens, which grow at 37°C (body temperature). Fungi store glycogen for their energy needs and use glucose and maltose for immediate energy metabolism. Most species are aerobic, except for the fermentation yeasts that grow in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. Fungi grow best where there is a rich supply of organic matter. Most fungi are saprobic (obtaining nutrients from dead organic matter). Since they lack photosynthetic pigments, fungi cannot perform photosynthesis and must obtain their nutrients from preformed organic matter. They are therefore chemoheterotrophic organisms. Fungi have no hearts, but they do have a circulatory system made up of masses of connecting hyphae. Hyphae are long, branching filamentous cells surrounded by tubular cell walls. The hyphae grow at the tips and expand into the nutrients the fungi is decomposing. The hyphae assist in nutrient exchange and in nutrient and water absorption. The hyphae make up the circulatory system of fungi, since they are the cells that transport nutrients throughout the organism. Impact Fungi also play vital roles in the biosphere. They are essential to the recycling of nutrients in all terrestrial habitats because they are the dominant decomposers of the complex components of plant debris, such as cellulose and lignin In fact fungi are the major organisms responsible for the decomposition of dead organic material and the recycling of nutrients. Also the health of green plants, especially trees.
In addition, fungi provide habitats and food for numerous invertebrates. Others, particularly the truffle-like fungi, provide food for native mammals. In fact they form the major part of the diet of the Long-footed Potoroo, the endangered Gilberts Potoroo and some Bandicoots. Zygomycota are the smallest group of fungi. Members of Zygomycota are known for their growth on high sugar containing organisms, such as fruit, and for their rapid growth. Zygospore fungi can also be often found on moldy bread, or parasites or protists as well as small invertebrate animals. It can be easily recognized by the black fuzzy dots that occur overtime. There are not enough differences in the chemistry of fungi to indicate gender. Fungi however, require different mating types to sexually reproduce. In zygomcotes, they produce sexually through zygospores, following fusion of the gametes. Some also produce asexually through sporing. Zygospores are diploid structures that develop after two haploid hyphae of opposite types combine and fuse their nuclei together. After a period of dormancy, the zygospore forms sporangia, where meiosis occurs and spores form. Zygospores often deposits thick chitin walls around itself to weather adverse conditions. R. stolonifer is a threadlike mold and a heterotrophic species; it is dependant on sugar or starch for its source of carbon substances for food. It uses food matter, generally breads which is why it is referred to as the bread mold. It also uses soft fruits, like grapes or strawberries, as a food source for growth, nutrition and reproduction. The life cycle of Pilobolus begins with a black sporangium that has been discharged onto a plant substrate such as grass. A herbivorous animal such as a horse then eats the substrate, therefore consuming the sporangium as well. The Pilobolus sporangium survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract without germinating, and emerges with the excrement. Once outside its host, spores within the sporangium germinate and grow as a mycelium within the excrement, where it is a primary colonizer. Later, the fungus fruits to produce more spores. Pilobolus is a genus of fungi that commonly grows on herbivore dung. Actinomucor is a type of common mold, and can be isolated easily from the soil and air. This species of fungi belongs to the class of Zygomycetes, and is a member of the Mucorales (Mucoraceae division). It has long, slender non-segmented and poly-nucleated hypae. Sporangia are formed during asexual reproduction, while thick-walled zygospores are formed during sexual reproduction. This class of fungi is characterized by having rhizoids, stolons and short branches of sporophores under the apex sporangia. While morphologically similar to the Mucor family, the Actinomucor differs by having (1) stolon, and (2) rhizoids and sporophores deriving from the rhizoids. Kickxellomycotina Consists of the class:Mucorales Zoopagales The Zoopagales is an order of fungi in the subphylum Zoopagomycotina. Most species are parasites or predators of microscopic animals such as amoebae. They also predate on rotifers. Mucoromycotina Zoopagomycotina Mycotypha africana Species of Mycotypha produce cylindrical vesicles at the apex of sporangiophores that usually are initially simple but that can become branched in age. The vesicle bears two distinct types of denticles: 1) one that is short and that bears a globose, unispored sporangium, and 2) a longer one that give rise to an obovoid or cylindrical unispored sporangium. Class: Agaricales Spinellus reproduces asexually by producing mitospores called aplanospores. These are formed inside a globose spore mother cell called a sporangium which is borne at the tip of a long stalk (= sporangiophore). Spinellus can attack different gill fungi but species of Mycena seem to be the preferred host. Spinellus is closely related to the Bread Mould, Rhizopus stolonifer. In this picture a gilled fungus,
Mycena epipterygia, has been attacked by a parasitic fungus Spinellus fusiger. The Spinellus grows throughout the cap of the Mycena then eventually breaks out to produce radiating reproducive stalks (sporangiophores) bearing globose terminal sporangia that you can see here. Eventually, the spores inside the sporangia will be released by breakdown of the outer sporangial wall and the spores will be passivley dispersed by wind, water, insects to new sites. Spinellus fusiger Amoebophilus simplex The parasite Amoebophilus simplex (Zoopagales) and its amoeba host. Nutrient transfer happens through a specialized hypha called a haustorium. Chains of spores are produced that are engulfed by scavenging amoebae to begin the infection process. Entomophthoromycotina Entomophthorales Most species of the Entomophthorales are pathogens of insects. A few attack nematodes, mites, and tardigrades, and some are free-living saprotrophs.
Most species of the Entomophthorales produce ballistic asexual spores that are forcibly discharged. When not landing on a suitable host, these spores can germinate to make one of several alternate spore forms, including a smaller version of the original spore, or (in some species) an adhesive spore elevated on a very slender conidiophore called a capilliconidiophore.
*Fun Fact* The name Entomophthorales is derived from the Greek for insect destroyer (entomo=insect, phthor=destroyer) Sac Fungi Basidiomycotes Club Fungi Class:Zoopagales Rhizopus stolonifer Basidiomycota are the most familiar of the fungi. Also called the "club fungi", they account for about a third of all identified fungi. Basidiomycota are unicellular or multicellular, sexual or asexual, and terrestrial or aquatic. Indeed, Basidiomycota are so variable that it is impossible to identify any morphological characteristics that are both unique to the group and constant in the group. They include these groups: mushrooms, puffballs, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, other polypores, smuts, bunts, and rusts. These are all short-lived reproductive structures called fruiting bodies or basidiocarps.
Some club fungi are parasites of plants and these species of club fungi do not form basidiocarps. Commonly called smuts and rusts, they can cause serious damage to cereal crops like corn and wheat. Basidiomycota have a huge impact on human affairs and ecosystem functioning. Many Basidiomycota obtain nutrition by decaying dead organic matter, including wood and leaf litter. Thus, Basidiomycota play a significant role in the carbon cycle. Unfortunately, Basidiomycota frequently attack the wood in buildings and other structures, which has negative consequences for humans. General Information The most unique feature is the production of basidia (sing. basidium), which are the cells on which sexual spores are produced, and from which the group takes its name. Basically, Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for yeasts), and reproducing sexually through the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four). These specialized spores are called basidiospores.
Most of the fungi body is mycellium, the mass of the hyphae that constitutes the vegetative part of a fungus. But it is the fruiting bodies, which result from sexual reproduction, that are visible as mushrooms and other fungi. Structure/ Reproduction Importance/ Impact One unifying feature of the Agaricomycotina is the presence of "dolipore" septa, which are pores in the crosswalls between adjacent cells that are bordered by a collar-like margin of cell wall material . Other Basidiomycota also have septal pores, but their structure is not the same.
Tremellomycetes have "vesiculate" parenthesomes, in which the septal pore cap is divided into cup-shaped sections. Dacrymycetes and some Agaricomycetes have "imperforate" parenthesomes, in which the septal pore cap forms a smooth, dome-shaped covering over the dolipore. Most Agaricomycetes have "perforate" parenthesomes, in which the septal pore cap has openings of varying sizes, and appears discontinuous in section. Unique Features Most Agaricomycotina produce four spores on each basidium, but some species produce as few as one or as many as eight spores per basidium. Another important characteristic is the presence or absence of "spore repetition", which is the production of secondary spores directly from basidiospores. The Agaricomycotina display variation in this character also. It is therefore not surprising that the Agaricomycotina, was not formally recognized as a taxonomic group before the advent of molecular characters. Structure General Information Consists of Tremellomycetes,Dacrymycetes, Agaricomycetes Agaricomycotina Macrolepiota procera Agaricales The mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) is a basidiomycete fungus with a large, prominent fruiting body resembling a lady's parasol. It is a fairly common species on well-drained soils. It is found alone or in groups and fairy rings in pastures and occasionally in woodland. Globally, it is widespread in temperate regions. It is a very sought after and popular fungus in Europe. The height and cap diameter of a mature specimen may both reach 40 cm, a size truly impressive for the fruiting body of an agaric.
The surface is characteristically wrapped in a snakeskin-like pattern of scaly growths. The immature cap is compact and egg-shaped, with the cap margin around the stipe, sealing a chamber inside the cap. As it matures, the margin breaks off, leaving a fleshy, movable ring around the stipe. At full maturity, the cap is more or less flat, with a chocolate-brown umbo in the centre that is leathery to touch. Dark and cap-coloured flakes remain on the upper surface of the cap and can be removed easily. The gills are crowded, free, and white with a pale pink tinge sometimes present. The spore print is white. It has a pleasant nutty smell. When sliced, the white flesh may turn a pale pink. Calocera viscosa Dacrymycetales Calocera viscosa, commonly known as the yellow stagshorn, is a jelly fungus an order of fungi characterized by their unique "tuning fork" basidia.

It has bright orange, yellow or occasionally white branching basidiocarps, which are somewhat jelly-like in texture and slimy to the touch (hence the specific name). It is relatively large for a jelly fungus, and can reach up to ten centimetres in height. It is also widespread and common, and its bright colour makes it stand out in its habitat. It grows on decaying coniferous wood, typically stumps and roots, although this may not be obvious if the wood is covered in leaves. It fruits throughout the year, but is most commonly seen in autumn
It is not poisonous, but its tough gelatinous texture and nondescript taste and odour make it unattractive as a food. Consists of Agaricostilbomycetes, Atractiellomycetes, Classiculomycetes
Cryptomycocolacomycetes, Cystobasidiomycetes, Microbotryomycetes
Mixiomycetes, Pucciniomycetes Members of the Pucciniomycotina are remarkably diverse, possessing a wide range of structural and ecological characters. One characteristic many of these fungi have in common, however, is their rather small size, making them challenging to locate and study.The group contains approximately 7,400 species, distributed among approximately 215 genera. More than 95% of the species and 75% of the genera in this group are placed in the Pucciniales (Pucciniomycetes), the plant parasitic rust fungi. The next largest orders, Septobasidiales (Pucciniomycetes) and Microbotryales (Microbotryomycetes), collectively constitute approximately 5% of the species and 4% of the genera. Nearly 20% of the rust genera and 60% of the nonrust genera are monotypic (containing only one species). The rusts are undeniably the most economically important fungi in this clade, as obligate parasites on a wide range of crop plants including cereal grains, legumes, and trees such as coffee, apple, and pine, where they can cause extensive reduction in yield and even host death. Other phytopathogenic Pucciniomycotina can be of economic importance, but on a much smaller scale than rust fungi. Gymnosporangium sabinae Like many rust diseases, G. sabinae requires two different hosts to complete its life cycle from year to year. Juniper is the winter host and pear is the most common summer host. Spores (called ascospores or aeciospores) are produced from the fungal lantern-shaped growths which protrude from the blisters on the underside of the pear leaf which become airborne and infect junipers. This fungus overwinters in swellings or galls on infected twigs and branches of susceptible juniper plants. In the spring after a rain or heavy dew, the galls on the juniper produce tiny dark horn-like growths that become covered with an orange-brown gelatinous mass called telia. The disease causes a yellow-orange spot that turns bright red on leaves of pear trees. The disease can be particularly damaging on pear, resulting in complete defoliation and crop loss if not treated. The fungus feeds on the living cells of the host plant and is not capable of surviving on dead plant material, and so must either alternate with a different host or produce resting spores to pass the dormant season Gymnosporangium sabinae (also Gymnosporangium fuscum) is a fungal heteroecious plant pathogen with Juniperus (Juniper trees and shrubs) as the primary host and Pyrus (pear trees), Malus (apple trees), or Crataegus (hawthorn) as secondary hosts. It is one of many types of rust fungi affecting plants. General Information How it affects its host Consists of the classes Entorrhizomycetes,Ustilaginomycetes, and Exobasidiomycetes and the order Malassezia. General Information Life Cycle Ustilaginomycotina are a subphylum within the phylum Basidiomycota of the kingdom Fungi. The class Ustilaginomycetes comprises more than 1400 species of basidiomycetous plant parasites, which are distributed in approximately 70 genera. They occur throughout the world, although many species are restricted to tropical, temperate or arctic regions Ustilaginomycotina The Ustilaginomycetes have a rather uniform life cycle .The haploid phase usually starts with the formation of basidiospores, after meiosis of the diploid nucleus in the basidium and ends with the combining of compatible haploid cells to produce dikaryotic, parasitic mycelia. The dikaryotic phase ends with the production of basidia. In the majority of the Ustilaginomycetes the young basidium becomes a thick-walled teliospore and separates at maturity from the sorus. Most of the Ustilaginomycetes are dimorphic, producing a yeast or yeast-like phase in the haploid state. Almost all Ustilaginomycetes multiply mitotically in the saprobic phase, either with yeasts or with ballistoconidia, or with both. They lack membrane bands or caps at the pores characterize the Entorrhizomycetidae. Entorrhiza is the single genus currently identified of this group.

Presence of enlarged interaction zones characterizes the Ustilaginomycetidae. This statistically well-supported subclass comprises 33 teleomorphic (with a known sexual stage) and one anamorphic (without a known sexual stage) genera,

The Exobasidiomycetidae differ from the Ustilaginomycetidae by forming local interaction zones and from the Entorrhizomycetidae by having membrane caps at the pores. This subclass contains 35 teleomorphic and two anamorphic genera. Subgroups of Ustilaginomycotina Malassezia globosa Malassezia This species requires olive oil for growth on routine laboratory media. Colonies on mDixon agar are raised, folded and rough with a course, brittle texture.
It may be differentiated from M. obtusa by its cell shape and by its failure to grow at 37°C. It is frequently found, in addition to other Malassezia spp. from the same source. Malassezia (formerly known as Pityrosporum) is a genus of fungi. Malassezia is naturally found on the skin surfaces of many animals, including humans. In some infections, some species can cause hypopigmentation on the trunk and other locations in humans. Currently there are 10 recognized species:
M. dermatis Sugita et al. 2002[4]
M. furfur
M. globosa[5]
M. japonica Sugita et al. 2002 [6]
M. nana[7]
M. obtusa
M. pachydermatis[8]
M. restricta[9]
M. slooffiae[10]
M. sympodialis[11]
M. yamatoensis[12] Tilletia controversa Exobasidiomycetes Tilletia controversa is a plant pathogen. It is a fungus known to cause the smut disease (TCK) in soft white and hard red winter wheats. It stunts the growth of the plants and leaves smut balls in the grain heads. When the grain is milled the smut balls emit a fishy odor that then lowers the quality of the flour.
TCK smut exists in the western and northwestern United States, but is not considered a major problem Teliospores of Tilletia controversa, the dwarf bunt fungus Symptoms of a spike infected with dwarf bunt (Tilletia controversa) (right), including one crushed sorus revealing the dark mass of teliospores, compared to a healthy spike (left) Pucciniomycetes Puccinia sessilis Puccinia sessilis is a fungal plant pathogen, also known as Arum Rust or Ransons Rust. It commonly infects Arum maculatum and Allium ursinum causing yellow to orange circular patches on leaves. On the underside it produces raised orange aecia commonly covered in spores. It is common in Eurasia in the Spring. Close up of aecidia of Puccinia sessilis Pucciniomycetes develop no basidiocarp, karyogamy occurs in a thick-walled resting spore (teliospore), and meiosis occurs upon germination of teliospore. They have simple septal pores without membrane caps and disc-like spindle pole bodies. Harpellales Harpellales live in arthropods (particularly freshwater aquatic insect larvae). Harpellids presumably feed on nutrients that are not utilized by the arthropod. Because they are generally assumed to neither harm nor benefit the host animal, this association is considered commensalistic. Harpellales are divided into two families, the Harpellaceae and the Legeriomycetaceae. Asellariales It is found in the digestive tracts of arthropods. It uses asexual reproduction by arthrospores. Some examples include Asellaria and Orchesellaria. Saprobic, may be parasitic on fungi, can form symbiotic associations; thallus forms from holdfast on other fungi; mycelium branched or unbranched; asexual and sexual reproduction; contains four orders.
This fungus grouping consists of Asellariales, Kickxellales, Dimargaritales, and Harpellales. Its primarily saprobic and the mycelium is highly branched and occasionally coenocytic. Some examples include Kickxella, Coemansia, Linderina, and Spirodactylon. Kickxellales Dimargaritales are parasitic fungi whose host is another fungus (Mycoparasitic). Some examples include Dimargaris, Dispira, and Tieghemiomyces Dimargaritales General information Zygomycota are arguably the most ecologically diverse group of fungi, functioning as saprophytes on things such as fruit, soil, and dung (Mucorales), as harmless inhabitants of arthropod guts (Harpellales), as plant mutualists forming ectomycorrhizae (Endogonales), and as pathogens of animals, plants, amoebae, and especially other fungi (all Dimargaritales and some Zoopagales are mycoparasites). Subgroups of Zygospore Reproduction Ascomycotes Most multicellular ascomycetes reproduce asexually and is responsible for the rapid spread of these fungi into new areas. They reproduce by forming spores called conidia. These spores simply pinch off from exposed ends of hyphae. They are fungi which produce microscopic spores inside special, elongated cells or sacs, known as 'asci', which give the group its name. As the spores mature within an ascus, increasing fluid pressure builds up inside until eventually the top bursts off, rapidly releasing the spores. The sexual part of the life cycle occurs when two hyphal structures mate. During sexual reproduction, plus and minus strains (compatible mating types) of a species come together. Plasmogamy precedes karyogamy. Karyogamy yields diploid zygotes that undergo meiosis to return to the haploid state. Pezizomycotina Taphrinomycotina General Information Ascomycotes is the largest group of fungi. Commonly called "sac fungi" or "cup fungi" for the cup-shaped fruiting bodies of many ascomycetes, this group includes many of the delicious, edible fungi. Members of the class Ascomycetes are diverse. They range from unicellular yeasts to powdery mildews, cottony molds, and large complex “cup” fungi.

In common with other fungal phyla, the Ascomycota are heterotrophic organisms that need organic compounds in order to thrive. They recieve these by feeding on a variety of organic substrates including dead matter, foodstuffs, or as symbionts in or on other living organisms. To obtain these nutrients from their surroundings, ascomycetous fungi secrete powerful digestive enzymes that break down organic substances into smaller molecules, which are then taken up into the cell. Reproduction Sexually Asexually Pezizomycotina is the largest subphylum and contains all ascomycetes that produce ascocarps (fruiting bodies).The Pezizomycotina includes most macroscopic "ascos" such as truffles, ergot, ascolichens, cup fungi (discomycetes), pyrenomycetes, lorchels, and caterpillar fungus.It also contains microscopic fungi such as powdery mildews, dermatophytic fungi, and Laboulbeniales. Pezizomycotina consists of the classes :
Orbiliomycetes (Orbiliales)
Pezizomycetes (Pezizales)
Sordariomycetes These fungi reproduce by fission rather than budding. Most species of Pezizomycotina produce a dominant filamentous or hyphal growth phase, although several species are known to be dimorphic, growing as unicellular budding yeasts under certain conditions. Reproduction General Information Ascomycetes make many contributions to the good of humanity, and also have many ill effects.One of their most harmful roles is as the agent of many plant diseases. For instance:
Ergot (Claviceps purpurea) impacts humans dramatically since this attacks wheat products. In addition, it is unbenifical if consumed. Symptoms include hallucinations, stomach cramp, and a burning sensation in the limbs. Positive Effects On the other hand, ascus fungi have brought some important benefits to humanity:
The medical importance of Tolypocladium niveum as an immunosuppressor. It excretes Ciclosporin, which, as well as being given during Organ transplantation to prevent rejection, is also prescribed for auto-immune diseases such as multiple sclerosis Negative effects Helvella lacunosa Pezizomycetes This species is common in western North America and is also found in Europe, Japan, and China. It is frequent in the alpine, and temperate zones of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The species occurs under pine, oak and Douglas fir and nearby parkland and lawns. Fruiting bodies appear in late summer and autumn, though have been recorded in winter in California Location Helvella lacunosa, also known as the slate grey saddle or fluted black elfin saddle, is an ascomycete fungus. The mushroom is readily identified by its irregularly shaped grey cap, fluted stem, and fuzzy undersurfaces. Helvella lacunosa has an irregular folded or wrinkled cap which may be shades of grey to black in colour, and measure anywhere from 1 to 10 cm (though usually between 2 and 5 cm). The wrinkled ridges 3 may be white when young and darken with age, though may be any shade of grey. This species is eaten especially after cooking but stems are not eaten Consist of Saccharomycetes Saccharomycotina is a subphylum of the phylum Ascomycota, and consists of yeasts. Most people know that ascomycete yeasts produce CO2 that makes bread rise and ferment sugars to alcohol. In fact, many yeast species are vitally important in our modern every day life. Many more ascomycete yeasts, however, are free-living in substrates of high organic content in close associations with other organisms. There are many examples of their interactions with arthropods, and yeasts may provide vitamins and enzymes to arthropods in exchange for efficient habitat and dispersal. They also dont form ascocarps (fruiting bodies).
Members of Saccharomycetales generally occupy damp or wet habitats that are high in organic material. They occur with regularity in the bark of certain deciduous trees and sometimes in fermenting fruit and other high sugar environments such as nectar and sap fluxes. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae sexual reproduction occurs after cells containing different mating type alleles designated and fuse in response to mating pheromones in a process called plasmogamy. Karyogamy, the fusion of nuclei and the second step in the process of fertilization, occurs to yield a cell with a diploid nucleus. There may, however, be a delay in the completion of sexual reproduction, and the population of budding diploid cells may increase in number. Eventually the mated cells develop into asci and undergo meiosis. General Information In asexual reproduction the cell nucleus divides by mitosis and as a bud develops a second nucleus moves into the cell. The bud enlarges and at the point when it reaches the size of the parent cell it separates from it. The majority of them are nearly 1000 known ascomycete yeasts are believed to reproduce only asexually, but it often is difficult to detect sexual reproduction in newly discovered heterothallic species. Asexually Sexually Reproduction Saccharomycotina Candida albicans is a diploid fungus that grows both as yeast and filamentous cells and a causal agent of oral and genital infections in humans. Systemic fungal infections (fungemias) including those by Candida albicans have emerged as important causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with AIDS, cancer chemotherapy, or organ/ bone marrow transplantation. Candida albicans biofilms may form on the surface of implantable medical devices. In addition, hospital-acquired infections by C. albicans have become a cause of major health concerns. Candida albicans is commone in the human mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Candida albicans lives in 80% of the human population without causing harmful effects, although overgrowth of the fungus results in candidiasis (candidosis). Candidiasis is often observed in individuals with diseases such as HIV-infected patients. A common form of candidiasis restricted to the mucosal membranes in mouth or vagina is thrush, which is usually easily cured in people who are not immunocompromised. For example, higher prevalence of colonization of Candida albicans was reported in young individuals with tongue piercing, in comparison to unpierced matched individuals. To infect host tissue, the usual unicellular yeast-like form of Candida albicans reacts to environmental cues and switches into an invasive, multicellular filamentous form, a phenomenon called dimorphism. Treatment Treatment includes:
amphotericin B, caspofungin, or fluconazole for systemic infections
fluconazole or caspofungin for oral or esophageal infections
topical azole for vaginal infections
aspirin- chalky paste applying to the infected area. Candida albicans General Information Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast. It is perhaps the most useful yeast, since it is used frequently in winemaking, baking and brewing since ancient times. It is believed that it was originally isolated from the skin of grapes. It is one of the most intensively studied eukaryotic model organisms in molecular and cell biology. It is the microorganism behind the most common type of fermentation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are round, and range between 5–10 micrometres in diameter. It reproduces by the process known as budding. Saccharomyces cerevisiae In nature, yeast cells are found primarily on ripe fruits such as grapes (before maturation, grapes are almost free of yeasts). Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae is not airborne, it requires an organism or thing to move, such as bees. Nutrition All strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can grow on glucose, maltose, and trehalose and do not grow on lactose and cellobiose. However, growth on other sugars is possible, galactose and fructose are shown to be two of the best fermenting sugars. The ability of yeasts to use different sugars can differ depending on whether they are grown aerobically or anaerobically. Some strains cannot grow anaerobically on sucrose and trehalose.

All strains can use ammonia and urea as the sole nitrogen source, but cannot use nitrate, since they lack the ability to reduce them to ammonium ions. They can also use most amino acids, small peptides, and nitrogen bases as a nitrogen source. Histidine, glycine, cystine, and lysine are, however, not readily used. Saccharomyces cerevisiae under DIC microscopy Location General Information Neolecta Venturia inaequalis Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus that causes the Apple scab disease. Apple scab is a disease to Malus trees, such as apple trees, caused by the ascomycete fungus Venturia inaequalis. The disease manifests as dull black or grey-brown lesions on the surface of tree leaves, buds or fruits. Lesions may also appear less frequently on the woody tissues of the tree. Fruits and the undersides of leaves are especially susceptible. The disease rarely kills its host, but can significantly reduce fruit yields and fruit quality. Affected fruits are less marketable due to the presence of the black fungal lesions. The infection cycle begins in the springtime, when suitable temperatures and moisture promote the release of V. inaequalis ascospores. These spores rise into the air and land on the surface of a susceptible tree, where they germinate and form a germ tube that can directly penetrate the plant's waxy cuticle. A fungal mycelium forms between the cuticle and underlying epidermal tissue, developing asexually the conidia, that germinate on fresh areas of the host tree, which in turn produce another generation of conidial spores. This cycle of secondary infections continues throughout the summer, until the leaves and fruit fall from the tree at the onset of winter. Life Cycle General Information Dothideomycetes Schizosaccharomycetes Taphrinomycetes Neolectomycetes Pneumocystidomycetes Subphylum is Taphrinomycotina Taphrinomycotina consists of the classes Archaeorhizomycetes,Neolectomycetes
Pneumocystidomycetes, Schizosaccharomycetes,Taphrinomycetes.

The are yeasts (e.g. Schizosaccharomyces) that reproduce by fission rather than budding unlike most other yeasts, many of which are in the subphylum Saccharomycotina.

The are dimorphic plant parasites (e.g. Taphrina) with both a yeast state and a filamentous (hyphal) state in infected plants. They generally infect leaves, catkins and branches, not roots.

The are species in a single genus, Neolecta, which are the only members of the subphylum that form fruiting bodies, and which only grow out of root tips. They may have a yeast state (ascospores bud in the asci).

The also encompasses only one genus, Pneumocystis, one of which causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in humans. All species infect lungs and are yeasts. Taphrinomycotina is one of three subphyla constituting the Ascomycota and is more or less synonymous with the slightly older invalid name Archiascomycetes (sometimes spelled Archaeascomycetes). Archaeorhizomycetes Classes Neolecta is a genus of ascomycetous fungi that have fruiting bodies and is bright yellowish, orangish to pale yellow-green colored. It's also club-shaped, smooth and has fleshy columns up to about 7 cm tall.The species share the English designation "Earth tongues" along with some better-known fungi with a similar general form, but in fact they are only distantly related. Neolecta is found in Asia, North America, Northern Europe and Argentina.The species all live with trees, and at least one, N. vitellina, grows from rootlets of its host, but it is not known whether the fungus is parasitic, saprotrophic, or mutualistic. It is also said that it can be eaten. Falls under the class Neolectomycetes There is three different types of Neolecta.
Neolecta flavo virescens
Neolecta irregularis
Neolecta vitellina Pneumocystis jirovecii Found in the Pneumocystidomycetes class Pneumocystis jirovecii is a yeast-like fungus of the genus Pneumocystis. It is an important human pathogen, particularly among immunocompromised hosts ( indivudals with diseases). Prior to its discovery as a human-specific pathogen, P. jirovecii was known as P. carinii. Pneumocystis pneumonia is an important disease of immunocompromised humans, particularly patients with HIV, but also patients with a severely suppressed immune system (for example, following a bone marrow transplant). In humans with a normal immune system, it has no damage (silent infection). Deuteromycotes Imperfect Fungi The Fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established classifications of fungi. This is due to their reproduction, their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed; hence the name "imperfect fungi." Only their asexual form of reproduction is known, meaning that this group of fungus produces their spores asexually. Like basidiomycotes and ascomycotes, they develop mycelia from spores called conidia.
There are about 25,000 species that have been classified in the deuteromycota. Fungi producing the antibiotic penicillin and those that cause athlete's foot and yeast infections are imperfect fungi, which serves an importance to hunams. In addition, there are a number of edible imperfect fungi, including the ones that provide the distinctive characteristics of Roquefort and Camembert cheese. General Information Penicillium chrysogenum Aspergillus oryzae Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium roqueforti is a common saprotrophic fungus. Widespread in nature, it can be isolated from soil, decaying organic matter, and plants. The major use of this fungus is the production of blue cheeses, flavouring agents, antifungals, polysaccharides, proteases and other enzymes. As this fungus does not form visible fruiting bodies, descriptions are on microscopic characteristics. When grown on Czapek yeast autolysate (CYA) agar or yeast-extract sucrose (YES) agar, Penicillium roqueforti colonies are typically 40 mm in diameter, olive brown to dull green, with a rough texture. Grown on malt extract (MEA) agar, colonies are 50 mm in diameter and is dull green in color. General Information Appearance / Description Cyclosporin is obtained from a fungus that lives in soil. It is derived from the mold Tolypocladium inflatum.
Cyclosporin is used after transplant operations to suppress
the patients immune system, helping avoid rejection of the transplanted organ. It is very effective in psoriasis and many other conditions. It works fairly quickly. Though powerful, it causes very few serious reactions when used for short periods of time such as days, weeks, or a few months. It is considered a short-term treatment for psoriasis and is safest when given for less than one year. For the treatment of psoriasis or arthritis, it is generally used to treat people who cannot take other medications or have not found relief from other treatments. Short-term side effects of cyclosporine may include headache, nausea, tingling in the fingers and toes, aches in joints, growth of hair where it is not common, and swelling of the gums. While these side effects sound awful, most people do not experience them at lower dosages. The medication does not need to be stopped in the case of these side effects, and they many go away with continued use of the medication. General Information Side Effects Tolypocladium inflatum Cyclosporin Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sojae is a mold species in the genus Aspergillus.

In Japan it is used to make the ferment (Kji) of soy sauce, the mirin and other lacto-fermented condiments like tsukemono. Soy sauce is a condiment produced by fermenting soybeans with Aspergillus sojae, along with water and salt. General Information Penicillium chrysogenum Penicillium chrysogenum is a fungus, common in temperate and subtropical regions and can be found on salted food products, but it is mostly found in indoor environments, especially in damp or waterdamaged buildings Penicillium chrysogenum reproduces by forming dry chains of spores (or conidia) from brush-shaped conidiophores. The conidia are typically carried by air currents to new colonisation sites. In Penicillium chrysogenum the conidia are blue to blue-green, and the mold sometimes excretes a yellow pigment. However, Penicillium chrysogenum cannot be identified based on colour alone. Observations of its microscopic features are needed to confirm its identity Reproduction It has rarely been reported as a cause of human disease.
But the airborne spores of Penicillium chrysogenum are important human allergens. Penicillium chrysogenum has been used to produce penicillin and xanthocillin X, to treat pulp mill waste, and to produce the enzymes polyamine oxidase, phospho-gluconate dehydrogenase, and glucose oxidase. Which in turn can be used to benefit individuals Impact on Humans Location Verticillium albo-atrum is a soil-borne pathogen belonging to the class Deuteromycota. Verticillium albo-atrum has a limited host range. The most important hosts of this pathogen include hops, alfalfa and cotton. The pathogen infects the host and causes yellowing and wilting in turn affecting the host plants fitness and yield and ultimately reducing the economic value of the crop Conidia of V. albo-atrum form abundantly on senescent or necrotic plant parts and are able to travel large distances through the air. The fungus penetrates the tissue of a susceptible host and in some cases the infection becomes systemic whereas others appear to be localized infections. The conidia that do become systemic penetrate the plant tissue and occupy the xylem vessels where conidia are produced. Vascular colonization then occurs as the conidia move up the plant xylem vessels along with water.
Once colonized the pathogen travels up the vasculature of the plant plugging the xylem with mycelium and hyphae growth reducing the amount of water that reaches the upper regions of the plant. This lack of water results in the wilting symptom associated with the disease. Verticillium albo-atrum General Information Life Cycle Verticilliate whorled arrangement of the phialides on the conidiophores of Verticillium species. Maple tree infected by Verticillium albo-atrum Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus flavus is a fungal pathogen, which causes post-harvest disease in cereal grains and legumes. Post-harvest rot typically develops during harvest. Aspergillus flavus infections can occur while hosts are still in the field (pre-harvest), but often show no symptoms (dormancy) until post-harvest storage and/or transport. In addition to causing pre-harvest and post-harvest infections, many strains produce significant quantities of toxic compounds known as mycotoxins, which when consumed are toxic to mammals and humans. Aspergillus flavus is unique in that it is a thermo-tolerant disease and can survive in temperatures that other diseases wouldn't. A. flavus can contribute to the storage rots, especially when the plant material is stored at high moisture levels.
Aspergillus flavus grows and thrives in hot and humid climates.

Aspergillus flavus has a minimum growth temperature of 12°C (54°F) and a maximum growth temperature of 48°C (118°F). Even though the maximum growth temperature is around 48°C (118°F), the optimum growth temperature is right at 37°C (98.6°F). With these temperatures in mind; Aspergillus flavus had rapid growth at 30-55°C, slow growth at 12-15°C and it almost ceases growth at 5-8°C.

Aspergillus Flavus growth occurs at different percentage levels for different crops. For starchy cereals, growth will occur at 13-13.2%. For Soybeans, growth will occur at 11.5-11.8%. For other crops, growth will occur at 14%. Aspergillus flavus infections will not always reduce crop yields alone; however, it is possible for post-harvest disease to reduce the total crop yield by 10 to 30 percent, and in developing countries that produce perishable crops total loss can be greater than 30 percent. In grains and legumes, post-harvest disease results in the production of mycotoxins.In the United States annual economic loss estimations of peanuts, corn, cottonseed, walnuts, and almonds are less severe when compared to Asia and Africa. General Information Temperature Importance Imperfect Fungi or Deuteromycotes do not have any subphylum but they do have 3 major classes and a variety of orders as well.

Class Hyphomycetes lacking fruiting bodies
Order Moniliales
Order Stilbellales
Order Tuberculariales

Class Coelomycetes spores produced in fruiting bodies
Order Melanconiales
Order Sphaeropsidales

Class Agonomycetales lacking spores Classes / Orders Reproduction Even though sexual reproduction is absent among imperfect fungi, a certain amount of genetic recombination occurs. This becomes possible when hyphae of different genetic types fuse, as sometimes happens spontaneously. Within the heterokaryotic hyphae that arise from such fusion, a special kind of genetic recombination
called parasexuality may occur. In parasexuality, genetically distinct nuclei within a common hypha
exchange portions of chromosomes. Recombination of this sort also occurs in other groups of fungi and seems to
be responsible for some of the new pathogenic strains of wheat rust. Life Cycle General Information General Information General Information Entomophthora Muscae Entomophthora muscae is a species of pathogenic fungus which is fatal to flies. It can cause epizootic outbreaks of disease in houseflies and it has been investigated as a potential biological control agent. Order: Entomophthorales Outbreaks of Entomophthora muscae tend to occur in the spring and autumn. The fungus is found in most temperate regions and sporulation usually takes place in cool, humid conditions in areas where flies congregate and rest. In houses, the corpses of flies are frequently seen attached to windows or window frames, a place where other flies may easily become infected. In the open, they may be seen attached to the underneath of leaves, on fences and walls, in agricultural buildings and poultry houses Location Temperature Nutrition Molds Yeasts Fungi do most of their growing underground, away from the sunlight and open atmosphere where plants grow. However, fungi also breathe like other types of plants, despite their existence underground. They manage this through the natural pores in soil.

If you were to remove an entire fungus specimen from the ground, you would notice a large number of thread-like roots that make up most of the fungus body. These hair structures are known as hyphae, and they can be so small that it is difficult to distinguish them from the soil around the fungus. These hyphae can grow into spaces that plant roots cannot and can absorb the oxygen from the microscopic pockets in the soil itself, exchanging gases with the soil instead of the atmosphere. Fungi feed by releasing digesting enzymes unto their surroundings then absorbing the digested nutrients into their cells. Fungi do not have the complex structures that plants do, which allow plants to use sunlight efficiently and produce large amounts of their own energy. Instead, fungi must rely on more flexible methods of absorbing the necessary gases and gaining their energy from the environment around them Sexual Reproduction Fungi reproduce both asexually and sexually depending on their structure. Fragmentation is the an asexual method of reproduction which involves hyphae (a network of fine filaments found in fungi) breaking off and growing into new mycelia (loose, branching network of hyphae under the soil making up the main bulk of a fungus). This can often happen if the soil is disturbed and therefore any mycelium present will become fragmented or disrupted.
Many fungi also live on land therefore they have adapted to terrestrial life. Thus, fungi have produced spores which aid them in them being able to disperse in new locations. In addition, these spore-bearing structures help them from drying out and therefore increase their survival rate Asexual Reproduction Imperfect fungi or deuteromycotes only reproduce asexually .
These fungi such as those in the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, may exchange genetic material via parasexual processes, initiated by anastomosis between hyphae and plasmogamy of fungal cells. The frequency and relative importance of parasexual events is unclear and may be lower than other sexual processes Aspergillus Theres a variety of types of fungal reproduction, both mitotic and non-mitotic, include:
hyphae fragmentation
sporulation In zygomcotes, they produce sexually through zygospores, following fusion of the gametes. Zygospores are diploid structures that develop after two haploid hyphae of opposite types combine and fuse their nuclei together.

In Basidiomycota filamentous fungi composed of hyphae, and they reproduce sexually through the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores.

In Ascomycetes reproduction occurs when two hyphal structures mate. During sexual reproduction, plus and minus strains (compatible mating types) of a species come together. Mucoromytoina contains saprobes and the common ‘black bread molds’ (Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia
Also it contains the corpophilous (dung-fungus) Pilobolus,
which can ‘shoot’ its single spored sporangium
almost 6 feet in the direction of light Bread Mold Experiment Day 1- December 30th 2012 Day 6 January 5th 2013 Day 8- January 7th 2013 Day 10- January 9th 2013 I found the Bread mold (Rhizopus stolonifer) intriguing and decided to create my own bread mold experiment to document the progress of mold slowly taking over a single slice of bread. To begin my experiment, I took a slice of whole wheat bread and placed it in an airtight sealed ziplock bag along with 3 drops of water to keep the area within the bag moist. I then placed it on my window sill where it would reach the maximum amount of sunlight. This is benefical since the spores grow most rapidly at temperatures between 15°C and 30°C, and with the suns rays this temperature was reached. Day 6 I was able to see the new formings of the green mold forming in 3 small patches on the top of the bread recieving the most sunlight. Day 8, the 3 small patches began to grow more showing that the the spores had germinated to form hyphae and they began to grow on the bread surface absorbing all the moisture and nutrients from the bread. The final day, I was successful in growing bread mold which was clearly visible each day along the process. I was able to recognize with adequate nutrients from the bread the hyphae were able develop into mature fungi that consists of rhizoids. These rhizoids penetrate into the bread surface and hold the fungus to the organic material. It then develops fruiting structures known as sporangium, where small spores grow and are released in the surrounding areas. Resulting in the green mold growing on the bread. In order to get a better understanding of the concept of bread mold, I managed to capture close up images to help me be able to clearly see the structures growing within the bread itself. Zygospore Fungi
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