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Copy of Copy of Tang & Song Dynasties
Transcript of Copy of Copy of Tang & Song Dynasties
The Tang and Song Dynasties
I can analyze the political, economic, and cultural impact in the Tang and Song dynasties and their influence on Eastern Asia.
Tang and Song Dynasties
Empress Wu, first female Chinese Emperor
The Song Dynasty
Tang Taizong, China's second emperor
- Confucian beliefs stablized government through the civil service examination system
- Merit-based bureaucracy (Recruited government officials who were well educated, loyal, and efficient)
- Expanded to Tibet and Korea
- Military garrisons set up to protect Silk Road
- Capital, Chang'an, visited by foreign diplomats from Byzantine (cosmopolitan capital)
- Reestablished centralized control over China and the Empire
- Scholar-based government
-Maintained civil service exams
- Grand Canal distributed food more efficiently
- Distribution of land: Equal field system established to try and limit power of the wealthy
- Upper class women could own property
- Agricultural production and techniques improved
- Urbanization: Cities establised and grew
- Increased rice production and trade (Connected N. & S. China)
- Urbanization: Capital became manufacturing center
- Population increased
- Minted coins replaced paper money ( "flying cash")
- Women had access to new jobs
- The song government worked to weaken the power of the large landholders and help poor peasants obtain their own land.
Confucianism emerged ad the central ideology
State sponsored anti-Buddhist policy resulted in development of Neo-Confucianism
Policies influenced the spread on Buddhism
Upper class women had more opportunities
Inventions: Gunpowder & cannons, movable type printing, water-powered mills, looms, high quality porcelain
Seafaring aids (compass, cotton sails) built strong navy
Upper class women subject to foot-binding
Han Yu, orginator of Neo-Confucianism
Gunpowder (Song Dynasty)
Under the Tangs china emerged as a powerful and prosperous society. However, the Song presided over a "golden era" of Chinese civilization characterized by prosperity, sophistication , and creativity. Even though the Song military eventually led to the dynasty's demise, it is notable for economic revolutions that led to Chinese hegemony during the era. China's economic growth in turn had implications for many other societies through the trade that it generated along the long-distance routes.
Tang Dynasty at its peak.
Agriculture flourished, and manufacturing and trade grew dramatically.
-Long-distance trade had declined between the 4th and 6th centuries.
-Trade began to revive under the Tang dynasty and the unification of South West Asia under the Arabs.
- The silk Road was renewed and thrived as caravans carried goods back and forth between China and the countries of SW and South Asia
- Trade with regions near China also increased during the Tang and Song dynasties.
- The Chinese exported tea, silk, and porcelain.
- In return they received exotic woods, precious stones, and Various tropical goods
Movable type set printing
Gunpowder, flame thrower and trebuchet
paper currency and standardized coins
In Chinese cities, technological developments added new products and stimulated trade.
Other Technological developments
During the Tang dynasty, the Chinese began to make steel by mixing cast iron and wrought iron in a blast furnace heated by the burning of coal.
New forms of entertainment
Playing cards and chess (brought by India.) Invention of block printing in the 8th century provided new ways to communicate
The majority of chinese people still lived off the land in villages. Most peasents never left their villages except for the occasional visit to a nearby market town.
This group controlled much of the land and at the same time produced most of the candidates for civil service.
The scholar-gentry, as this class was known, replaced the old landed aristocracy as the political and economic elite of chinese society.
Rise of the landed Gentry
When a female married, she became part of her husband's family. In addition, a girls parent's were expectd to pay a dowry (money, goods, or property) to her husband when she married.
In what ways did trade improve during the time between these dynasties?