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Speech writing and Rhetoric

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by

Rosemary Sanz

on 14 January 2016

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Transcript of Speech writing and Rhetoric

What is Rhetoric?
Rhetoric (n)

1. Language used primarily to persuade or to influence others' beliefs or attitudes, convey emotion, heighten tension, emphasize a point...

2. The art of speaking or writing effectively (oratory, command of language, a way with words...)
Alliteration
Metaphor
pun or play on words

We shall
go on to the end;
we shall fight
in France,
we shall fight
on the seas and oceans,
we shall fight
with growing confidence and growing strength in the air,
we shall
defend our Island, whatever the cost may be;
we shall fight
on the beaches,
we shall fight
on the landing grounds,
we shall fight
in the fields and in the streets,
we shall fight
in the hills;
we shall
never surrender.”
Anaphora
(repetition of the same word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses)

c.f.
Epiphora or epistrophe
(repetition of the same word or phrase at the
end
of successive clauses)

e.g., "
Yes, we can
."
Commoratio
(repetition of the same idea several times in different words)
Rhetorical devices in ads
Different kinds of repetition
Other common rhetorical devices
Rhetorical questions
Contrasts and comparisons
Anecdotes and storytelling
Parallel (mirror) structures
Triads (grouping in threes)
Enumeration (long lists)
Verbal irony
Litotes (state a positive by negating its opposite)
Hyperbole
Understatement
Euphemism
"What didst thou
covet
? What didst thou
wish
? What didst thou
desire
?"
(Cicero)
Speech writing and Rhetoric
Are there any common features among the examples you have found?
What makes a great speech?
What makes a great speaker?

Find examples from history, politics, literature...
What is the relative importance of WHAT is said, and HOW it is said?
What distinctions should you make between
a) a speech and a presentation?
b) a speech and an essay?
Synonyms of 'speech'
Address
Allocution
Commentary
Declamation
Diatribe
Effusion
Eulogy
Exhortation
Harangue
Invective
Keynote
Lecture
Oration
Panegyric
Pitch
Recitation
Sermon
Soliliquy
Tirade
Valediction
Why, What, How?
Why?
What is the occasion, event or situation?
What is the aim or purpose of the speech?
What emotions or feelings do you want to convey to or inspire in your audience?
What?
What is the 'substance' of your speech?
What are the most effective facts, ideas, opinions or arguments you can use?
How?
What 'style' is appropriate?
Which rhetorical devices and techniques correspond best to your aims?
How can you structure your speech for maximum impact?
What kind of gestures/body language do you feel comfortable with?
How will you stand and/or move?
What are the strengths and weaknesses of your voice?
Speak well and prosper
We observe today
not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom
symbolizing an end as well as a beginning...
signifying renewal as well as change ...
Man holds in his mortal hands the power to
abolish all forms of human poverty and all forms of human life...
Where there is discord, may we bring harmony
Where there is error, may we bring truth
Where there is doubt, may we bring faith
and where there is despair, may we bring hope

You (U) turn if you want to...

The British police are the "best in the world",
I don't believe one of these stories I've heard
about them raiding our pubs for no reason at all,
lining the customers up by the wall.
Picking out people, knocking them down,
Resisting arrest as they're kicked on the ground,
Searching their houses, calling them "queer",
I don't believe that sort of thing happens here... not likely!
Sing if you're glad to be gay; sing if you're happy that way...
He hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million-
laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned at my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated my enemies; and what's his reason? I am a Jew!
Hath not a Jew eyes?
Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions?
Fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is?
If you prick us, do we not bleed?
If you tickle us, do we not laugh?
If you poison us, do we not die?
And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge?
Full transcript