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Periodic Table

About the periodic table.

Jade Westendorf

on 28 April 2011

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Transcript of Periodic Table

The Periodic Table Atomic Number Compounds Metallic/Non Metallic Characters Chemical reactions
Of elements Trends and patterns Alkali Metals Noble Gases Halogens AlKaline Earth Metals Transitional Metals Located in the S column the Alkali metals will only ever have 1 electron in their outer shell and are always trying to gain another to become more stable. These metals are highly reactive to water And can be very explosive when it comes into contact with it. These metals can be heated
to very high temperatures and melt to the point of staying solid. When in the flame they all have a distinguished coloured flame. Located in the D block the transitional metals that have an incomplete D shell. They are good conductors of electricity because they are made of metal. From groups 3 to 11 the groups have a high density and high melting points. Group 12 has more of a full outter shell and has a lower density and low melting point. These metals are naturally occuring
in nature. Francium is the second most rarest natural occuring element. Potassium, Rubidium and Francium are all radioactive with naturally occuring radioisotopes. Hydrogen is placed into this column because of its 1 electron in its outter shell. It acts like an alkali metal but is acturally a noble gas because of it being a gas and non metal. Reference
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_reaction Located in the S column the alkali earth metals have 2 eletrons in their outter shell and are more stable than the alkali metals. Noble gases are found in the p block in group 18. These have a full outta shell and dont Mix well with other electrons. Melting point for each of these gases are around about the same except for a few degrees difference and liquify at a small temperature range. Under lab conditions these gases are odorless, colourless, tasteless and nonflamable. Halogens are located in the P block in group 17. The don't have a full shell and can combine with other elements well. They come in different forms such as solid, Liquid and gas and emitt a coloured gas. As the atomic number of each element increases the reactivity decreases with it as well as a higher melting point. Flurine is the most reactive substance on the periodic table and must be stored in a flurine compounded glass. Actinides and Lanthanides. Lanthanides and actinides can be Man made or found in nature. They are all radioactive and fit into the periodic table between 57 and 89. Thorium and uranium are the most common actinides which can be found in the earths crust or in nature. The other actinides have to be extracted from minerals and stuff found in the ground. Lanthanides are considered the rare earth minerals but arn't really rare or from the earth. These need to be extracted from ores or other mixtures to be produced. Metallic charactoristics is mainly the loss of an electron to form a positive ion this is also referred to as electropositive elements. Alkali metals are the most metallic and as we move along the periods of the periodic table left to right the metallic charactoristics decreases. Non metallic charactors is the opposite of metallic with which its trying to gain electrons and form an anion. This is also called electronegative charactor. The elements towards the left are most likely to lose electrons more than the ones towards the right. As we move towards the right of the table the electrons experience a higher pull from the nucleus. This occurs because of a greater charge of the nucleus and the increase in size of the atom. Metals will usually have between 7 and 3 electrons on their outter shell and will ionise by giving out these electrons. This element will then gain a positive charge for each electron that is lost. Certain elements that have 4 electrons in their valence shell are included with the metals. Non metals include elements with Between 5 to 7 electrons in their outtermost shell and will ionise from gaining electrons. They will gain a negative charge for every electron gained. Elements with 4 electrons in their valence shell are classes as a non metal as well as Boron with only 3 electrons in its outter most shell. Atomic number represents the number of protons in an atom. It is also helpful in determining the amount of electrons surrounding a nucleus. This number will also identify the element due to the fact that all of the elements have a different atomic number. It is represent with a Z. Each of the elements has a specific set of chemical properties according to the amount of electrons in an atom which results in the atomic number. Compounds are when 2 or more elements come together to form a molecule. These molecules will always have the same amount of elements in it. when compounded with another element the elements will change what their traits were to new traits. Such as a highly reactive element coming together with another element to form a non reactive .compound By Jade westendorf A chemical reactions of an element is the process of creating a new chemical substance from another set of chemical substances. These reactions can either take place spontaneously (no energy) or non-spontaneous (using energy). The energy that helps these reactions can be Heat light or electricity. The substances that are involved with the chemical reaction are called the reactants. They start a chemical change which can produce 1 or more new products that have none of the originals substances charactoristics. An elementry reaction is the smallest division in which a reaction can be made to. This process can involve unimolecular and bimolecular reactions. Unimolecular only requires one molecule to create a reaction but needs the help of heat or light to make it happen. A bimolecular reaction is when 2 molecules are reacted together this end result is called the chemical synthesis or the addition reaction. Chemical reactions are reversible but the reactions are competing against each other and have different reaction rates. This rate is determined by the concentration of the end mixture. The End
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