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Transcript of Academic writing
Academic writing - common mistakes and important pieces of advice
Avoid personal pronouns
Avoid obviously informal expressions
Avoid sweeping generalizations and vague formulations
Punctuation, parentheses and numbers
I, me, you, we, they
Let the text elicit ideas without personal reference.
everyone, never, always
In the past
The standard format for an effective essay or article is to:
don't use colloquial language or slang (kid, lots of, cool, "like", "look")
generally avoid "phrasal verbs" (bring up, pick up, put up with, look at) in academic writing: instead, use one word equivalents
avoid common but vague words and phrases such as get, nice, thing. Your writing needs to be more precise.
I believe talent must be combined with hard work.
Historically we have treated them unfairly.
- who are
, who are
? Personal pronouns can lead to unnecessary confusion.
It is commonly believed that
Evidence suggests that
kids get education at home and in school
Look, a number of things can improve learning.
children are educated
young adults receive
Avoid exclamation marks [!], parentheses, ellipsis [...] and etc. unless absolutely necessary.
We're, they'll, it's, they've, it'd
We are, they will, it is, they have, it had/it would
Examples include guitar, piano, violin etc.
Examples include guitar, piano and violin.
use qualifying adverbs such as some, several, a minority of, a few, many to avoid making overgeneralisations.
Everyone has a smartphone nowadays.
soften absolute statements with concessions such as often, usually, hardly ever, the majority
A majority of people have
gambling has negative consequences
in the longer perspective
It is difficult to put up with such behavior
This essay will bring up three factors that...
They picked up some ideas from
If one looks at the consequences of...
discuss / investigate / mention
acquired / received / learned
investigates / analyzes
tolerate / endure
Finally a reminder regarding overall structure
(1) present a coherent thesis in the introduction,
(3) restate the thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the reader can decide whether he or she was convinced.
(2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in the body of the paper, and