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Birth of Filipino Nationalism

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Ericka de Vera

on 12 September 2014

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Transcript of Birth of Filipino Nationalism

Factors that paved way to the birth of Nationalism
Opening of the Philippines to World Commerce
Secularization Movement
Liberal Administration of Dela Torre
The Cavite Mutiny
Execution of GomBurZa
Propaganda Movement
Peaceful crusade or campaign for reforms.
It was organized and participated by ilustrados.
Dr. Jose Rizal, Marcelo H. Del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena are the leaders of the said movement.
Birth of Filipino Nationalism
an extreme Feeling of love for one's country.

1. Opening of the Philippines to World Commerce
2. Influx of Liberal Ideas
3. Secularization Movement
4. Liberal Regime of Dela Torre
5. The Cavite Mutiny
6. Execution of GomBurZa
Officially opened Manila on 1834 after
reviewing different economic policies
1834- 1873 different Ports were opened:
1. Sual
2. Iloilo
3. Zamboanga
4. Cebu
5. Legazpi
Stimulate vigorous economic activity in the
colony that makes the life of the Filipino’s to
Introduction of modern methods of agriculture
Improved means of transportation and
communication that stimulate economic
Emergence of Middle- Class

Middle Class took advantage of the economic boom of the Phil. acquired material wealth
They were able to improved their social standing
Able to send their children in schools and in Europe
Clamored for reforms and equality
Children become a member of Propaganda movement
Influx of Liberal Ideas
Suez Canal (November 17, 1869)
Shortened the distance between the Spain and the Phil.
Paved way for the entry of liberalism in the country

Spanish Republic
Upon establishment more Spaniards arrived in our country.
Impart liberal ideas to the Filipino’s
Brought with them liberal magazines and books
Liberal writers and their books:
Jean Jacques Rousseau (
Social Contract
John Locke (
Two treatise of the government
Thomas Paine (
Common Sense
Thomas Jefferson (
American and French Revolution

Religious orders took control of the parishes in the Philippines
- Agustinian
- Recollects
- Dominican
- Franciscan
Council of Trent

Stated that the Parishes should be controlled by Secular priest

But there are only few secular priest that are available because some of them were sent to America

19th Century
Majority of the Filipino Priest are qualified as Secular Priest

Regular Priest
Called as Friar Curates
Do not want their Parishes to turn-over to the Secular priest that created a tension between them

Parish Priest
A very influential and prestigious position

Gov. General Dela Torre
Boost and inspired the Secularization movement
Spanish Civil War (1868)
Cadiz, Spain
Led by Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano
Overthrew Queen Isabela II

Spanish Republic
Established in 1873
Replaced the Monarchy
Carlos Maria Dela Torre
The most well loved Governor General
Arrived in 1869
Applied Democratic and liberal ideas
Avoided an Extravagant life

Spanish Conservatives
Resented the liberal policy of Dela Torre

Encouraged the Freedom of Speech
Abolished Flogging as a form of Punishment
Allowed the formation of different Organization

Comite de Reformadores
(Committee of Reformers )
Composed of Clergy, laymen and students
Led several demonstrations against the Dominican school administrators (because of academic freedom and discrimination)
Spanish Republic ended resulting immediate shifting from Liberal to Autocratic

Rafael De Izquierdo (1870-73)
Autocratic/Oppressive ruler
Boasted that he ruled with a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other
Decided to restore old order
Repealed the exemption of the Filipino’s from Polo and tribute that the Cavite workers had been enjoying
JANUARY 20, 1872
200 Filipino soldiers and workers mutinied against Spaniards
Led by
Ferdinand La Madrid
Took control of the Spanish arsenal in Cavite
Gov. Izquierdo immediately dispatched soldiers to quell the rebellion
La Madrid was killed
Persecute the Ring leader
- people who are Fighting for a certain rights and privileges of a particular group.

- men of distinguished valor or performance admired for their noble qualities.
The 3 Martyrs
1. Mariano Gomez
2. Jose Burgos
3. Jacinto Zamora
Francisco Zaldua
- A Bicolano soldier who testified against the GOMBURZA
February 17, 1872

The day of execution of the 3 priest in Luneta (Bagumbayan) by garrote
The crowd paid respect when they removed their hats and knelt down
The bells rang all over the City upon the order of
Archbishop Melito Martinez

Rise of the Propaganda Movement

It began in 1872, when Fathers Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora were executed at the Luneta.

The Filipino exiles of 1872 and many patriotic students abroad met in Hong Kong, Singapore, Barcelona, Madrid, Paris, London and other foreign cities.

Work of promoting the welfare and happiness of the fatherland.

Aggressively but peacefully, by means of writing and speeches, they crusaded for reforms to rectify the evils of the Spanish colonial system.

– were patriots who waged their movement by means of pen and tongue to expose the defects of Spanish rule in the Philippines.

Marcelo H. Del Pilar
– a lawyer and a journalist (

Jose Rizal
– Physician-novelist and a many splendored genius (
Laong Laan / Dimasalang

Graciano Lopez Jaena
– The greatest orator of the PM

Mariano Ponce
– a medical student and a biographical writer (
Tikbalang / Naning / Kalipulako

Other Propagandists:

Juan Luna
Felix Hidalgo
- The masters of brush

Pedro Paterno
– A lawyer and man of letters

Antonio Luna
– Pharmacist and essayist (

Jose Ma. Panganiban
– linguist and essayist (
The Anti-Friar Manifesto of 1888
• Happened on March 1, 1888 led by Doroteo Cortes (Manila patriotic lawyer)

• It requested the expulsion of the friars from the Philippines.

• Titled: “Long Live the Queen! Long Live the Army! Down with the Friars! may be written by M.H. Del Pilar or Jose A. Ramos

La Solidaridad
Organ of the PM
a newspaper founded by Graciano Lopez Jaena in Barcelona on
February, 15 1889
Was created due to the reality that mass media is important in propagating the propaganda objectives.

5 Aims:

• To portray vividly the deplorable condition of the Philippines
• To work peacefully for the political and social reforms
• To combat the evil forces of medievalism and reaction
• To advocate liberal ideas and progress
• To champion the legitimate aspirations of the Filipino people for democracy and happiness

like: Jose Rizal, M.H Del Pilar, Mariano Ponce, Antonio Luna and Jose Ma. Pangilinan

Literature of the Propaganda Movement
• Despite its political spirit, the PM produced certain meritorious literary works which contributed to the blossoming of Filipino literature.

Writers and Contributions/Works:

• Dr. Pedro A. Paterno (doctor of laws) – “Ninay”, the 1st Filipino novel

• Gregorio Sanciangco – “El Progreso de Filipinas”, authored a book

• M.H. Del Pilar – “Dasalan and Tuksohan”

• Isabelo Delos Reyes – “El-Folk-Lore Filipino”

• Dr. Rizal – “Noli Me Tangere” and “El Filibusterismo”

• 1st Filipino Masonic lodge founded by Jaena in Barcelona
• Recognized on April 1889 by Grante Oriental Espanol headed by Don Miguel Morayta

Lodge Solidaridad
• organized by Del Pilar and Julio Llorante in Madrid
• Llorante (Worshipful Master)

Lodge Nilad
• 1st Filipino Masonic lodge founded by Serrano Laktaw in Manila on January 6, 1892
• Filipino Masonic lodges in Spain and in Philippines raised the needed funds to finance the campaign for reforms on Spain.

La Liga Filipina
(Philippine League)
• a Filipino civic association
• founded by Jose Rizal on July 3, 1892 in a house at Ilaya St. Tondo
• motto: “
Unus Instar Omnium
” or “
One Like All

5 Aims

• Union of the Archipelago into a compact, vigorous, and homogeneous body

• Mutual protection in all cases of pressing necessity

• Defense against all violence and injustice

• Encouragement of education, agriculture, and commerce

• Study and application of reforms
President: Ambrosio Salvador
Fiscal: Agustin dela Rosa
Treasurer: Bonifacio Arevalo
Secretary: Deodato Arellano
Members: Andress Bonifacio, Apolinario Mabini, Mamerto Natividad, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista, Moises Salvador etc.

• However, 3 days after founding of Liga Filipina, Rizal was arrested by order of
Governor General Despujol

• On
July 6, 1892
, Rizal was exiled to Dapitan-known to be the Liga Filipina’s collapse.
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