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Multiple Sclerosis

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victoria brombal

on 8 June 2013

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Transcript of Multiple Sclerosis

Biochemistry of Multiple Sclerosis Metabolic Effects of MS Genetics How does Multiple SClerosis effect the Homeostatic Mechanism of The Human Body? Population Dynamics History of Multiple Sclerosis FUN FACT Multiple Sclerosis MS is connected to the deficiency of vitamin B12 which is a key nutrient in supporting myelin formation. MS is not considered an inherited disorder because researchers found that there is no specific MS gene. Scientists use the chromosomes as maps to look for certain genes

MS was first diagnosed in 1849

In 1936, 8% survival rate after 20 years of MS

IN1961, 80% survival rate after 20 years of MS If someone has a B12 deficiency, it causes the Central Nervous system to undergo demyelination. Vitamin B12: Cobalamin (Cyanocobalamin) There are no predicted patterns and only occur if the right combination of changed genes are present. This allows the body to become susceptible to obtain the disorder. Close relatives of someone who has the disorder have a higher chance of developing it. Complex Disorders FUN FACT! If your father has this disease, your risk of getting MS is approximately 1 in 100. If your mother has this disease, your risk of getting MS is approximately 1 in 50. The risk for the general population of getting MS is approximately 1 in 800. The symptoms of MS go as far back as the middle ages. Therefore, MS existed before it had a name. By:Jen and Victoria Chemical Structure C63H88CoN14O14P Chemical Formula Demyelination Therefore, a person with MS would be expected to have a low amount of B12 present causing symptoms to progress. https://www.lef.org/protocols/neurological/multiple_sclerosis_02.htm Patients are often given B12 supplements which is proven to reduce the progress of demyelination which also decreases symptoms. Many researchers have found that exposure to sunshine seems to help prevent multiple sclerosis (MS) and sunlight exposure may even help prevent relapses. FUN FACT http://intelligentguidetoms.wordpress.com/category/supplements-what-you-need-to-minimize-ms-symptoms/ Your body has defense mechanisms to fight these microorganisms and prevent infections caused by viruses and bacteria. This is what makes up your immune system. VIRUS DEFENDERS Other immune cells produce chemicals or "antibodies" to find and eliminate harmful invaders. The cells that produce antibodies are located in the lymphatic system. Sometimes, the immune system sees parts of its own body as foreign and attacks them in what is called an "autoimmune response." In the case of MS, the immune system attacks the myelin around nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. What are T-cells? Controls the immune system's response to infected cells. This is Dr. Shepherd... And Margaret came to see Dr. Shepherd for some health advice... Margaret is 35 years old and has been experiencing some symptoms for the past few weeks... Her symptoms include:
- Tingling
- Pain
- Loss of balance
- Spasms
- Blurred vision Before Dr. Shepherd comes to his conclusion of diagnosis, he wants to perform some tests... http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_diagnose.htm These tests include:

1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
2. Evoked Potentials (EP)
3. Lumbar Puncture (LP) The results of these tests gave him a clear diagnosis for Margaret. Margaret has been diagnosed with MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. Dr. Shepherd asks for Margaret's family medical history before going any further with testing. http://mssociety.ca/en/research/medmmo-prev-may_02.htm Scarring causes the messages sent from the Central Nervous System to be distorted or stopped. Damage to the axon of the nerve cells from demyelination causes what is known as scarring. This picture shows a damaged neuron that will not be able to send messages from the CNS to the rest of the body. Relation to Species (MICE) A new experimental treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS) completely reverses the devastating autoimmune disorder in mice, and might work exactly the same way in humans, say researchers at the Jewish General Hospital Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research and McGill University in Montreal. MS is influenced by multiple genes. Though there is not a specific MS gene, chromosome 19 and chromosome 3 may have been found to be related to this disorder. Chromosome 19 - 1,300 to 1,700 genes
-63 million base pairs http://hellerbrittani.wikispaces.com/Chromosome+19 Chromosome 3 -20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
-198 million base pairs http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/chromosome/3 http://phys.org/news169211700.html#jCp - The MS Society now estimates that there are likely between 55,000 and 75,000 Canadians living with this unpredictable disease.

- In October 2005, researchers at the University of Calgary reported in the journal Multiple Sclerosis that the overall weighted estimate of MS prevalence in Canada is 240 per 100,000 individuals. Researchers also found statistics for each region in Canada:

British Columbia – 240 people per 100,000;
Prairie region – 340 people per 100,000;
Ontario - 230 people per 100,000;
Quebec – 180 people per 100,000;
Atlantic region – 350 people per 100,000.

The overall weighted estimate of MS prevalence in Canada was reported to be 240 people per 100,000. http://mssociety.ca/en/research/medmmo-prev-may_02.htm - Canadians have one of the highest rates of multiple sclerosis in the world.
- MS is the most common neurological disease affecting young adults in Canada.
- Every day, three more people in Canada are diagnosed with MS.
- Women are more than three times as likely to develop MS as men.
- in 1868, MS was first identified and described by a neurologist, Dr. Jean-Martin Charcot.
- The causes of MS are unknown, but researchers are getting closer to finding the answer. - In the United States, MS is more common in northern states than it is in southern states.
- According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the rate of MS in the United States below the 37th parallel is 57 to 78 cases per 100,000 people. Above the 37th parallel, the rate of MS is 110 to 140 cases per 100,000 people. Environmental Factors with MS - Researchers have discovered that the risk of MS is greater with increasing distance from the equator.
- Though the reason for MS is unknown, it is possible that something in the environment triggers the autoimmune response (virus). http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ms.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ms.html 1. Progressive Relapsing (PR) MS

2. Primary Progressive (PP) MS

3. Secondary Progressive (SP) MS

4. Relapsing Remitting (RR) MS - a French neurologist
- he first discovered MS by using the anatomoclinical method which helped him with his discovery, in 1868. http://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/musculoskeletal/multiple-sclerosis4.htm -A Dutch saint named Lidwina, who died in 1433, may have been one of the first known MS patients.
-King George III's grandson, George, was another well-known MS patient, who described his symptoms in a diary that he kept until his death in 1848 http://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/musculoskeletal/multiple-sclerosis4.htm Lidwina George Dr. Jean-Martin Charcot -his detailed description of MS, described as “sclerose en plaques”, described the expansions of lesions (scarring of myelin) on the axon of the nerves in the CNS.
- Dr. Charcot was the first person to diagnose MS on a living patient. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3064755/ - One of his first patients suffered an unusal combination of symptoms.
- He tried some of the typical treatments for other neurological disorders, such as electrical stimulation and injections of silver, but none of them worked.
- After his patient died, he dissected her brain and discovered the brain lesions.
- He called the disease "sclerose en plaques".
- Myelin was discovered shortly afterwards, although its exact significance was unknown. http://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/musculoskeletal/multiple-sclerosis4.htm Dr. Shepherd sits down with Margaret and talks to her about all the different types of Multiple Sclerosis... Symptoms seemed to have slowly gone away and then came back a few weeks later.... https://www.lef.org/protocols/neurological/multiple_sclerosis_02.htm Progressive Relapsing (PR) MS - the least common type of MS
- in only about 5% of people diagnosed
- people with this type experience steady worsening from the beginning, but also experience clear attacks of symptoms, with or without recovery.
- do not experience remissions with recovery without recovery http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_typetreat.htm Primary Progressive (PP) MS - describes a course of MS which is characterized by a slow accumulation of disability, without relapses
- It may stabilize for periods of time, and even offer minor temporary improvement but, there are no periods of remission.
- Approximately 10% of people diagnosed with MS have this type
- It is the only form of MS to affect men and women equally
- Tends to be diagnosed after the age of 40. without relapses with short stabilization http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_typetreat.htm Secondary Progressive (SP) MS - Distinct relapses and remissions become less apparent and the disease begins to worsen steadily over time.
- Occasional flare-ups, minor improvements, and even periods of stability may occur, but overall, it is one of accumulating disability. less relapses occasional flare-ups http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_typetreat.htm Relapsing Remitting (RR) MS - Clearly defined episodes during which new symptoms appear, or existing ones get worse.
- Episodes come on over a few hours to a few days, and can last anywhere from at 48 hours to a few months.
- In the period between attacks, recovery is complete, or nearly complete, and this recovery time persists of a clear period of time.
- The time between attacks can be months or even years.
- 85% of people have this type of MS complete recovery nearly complete recovery http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_typetreat.htm Dr. Shepherd goes on to tell her that she has been diagnosed with RRMS and their are certain treatments she can go through.... IMMUNOMODULATORY THERAPIES-generally work by targeting some aspect of the inflammatory process of MS, with an aim of preventing inflammation which causes relapses.

STEROIDS-help to decrease the severity and duration of MS relapses.

Finally, there are medications that help ease many MS related symptoms. There are medications to help fatigue, and pain. http://mssociety.ca/en/treatments/default.htm Margaret doesn't understand what is wrong with her, so Dr. Shepherd explains.... Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a complex and unpredictable disease. It is a disabling disease of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and it attacks the protective sheath around the axon of the nerves called the myelin.

The exact cause of MS is unknown, but researchers think environmental and genetic factors contribute, even though it is NOT an inherited disease. http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_what.htm http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/ms.html#anchor1 http://theregenerativemedicine.com/Multiple_Sclerosis.html http://ms.about.com/od/livingwellwithms/a/vitamin_b12.htm http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ms.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ms.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ms.html http://lymphoma.about.com/od/glossary/g/tcells.htm http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/ms.html http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/ms.html#anchor1 http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/ms.html#anchor1 http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/ms.html#anchor1 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3064755/ http://www.themcfox.com/multiple-sclerosis/ms-facts/multiple-sclerosis-facts.htm http://www.themcfox.com/multiple-sclerosis/ms-facts/multiple-sclerosis-facts.htm References
About MS. (n.d.). Retrieved June 1, 2013, from Multiple Sclerosis Society of Canada website: http://mssociety.ca/en/information/ms_what.htm

Chromosome 19. (n.d.). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from Wiki Spaces website: http://hellerbrittani.wikispaces.com/Chromosome+19

Chromosome 3. (n.d.). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from Wiki Spaces website: http://hellerbrittani.wikispaces.com/Chromosome+3

Jean-Martin charcot: The father of neurology. (2011, March 9). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3064755/

Multiple sclerosis. (n.d.). Retrieved June 2, 2013, from

Multiple sclerosis. (2013). Retrieved June 2, 2013, from Pacific Medical Center of Hope website: http://theregenerativemedicine.com/Multiple_Sclerosis.html

Multiple sclerosis. (2013). Retrieved June 4, 2013, from Life Extension website: https://www.lef.org/protocols/neurological/multiple_sclerosis_02.htm

Multiple sclerosis. (2013). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from Themcfox.com website:

Multiple sclerosis (MS). (2005). Retrieved June 2, 2013, from Duke Center for Human Genetics website: http://www.chg.duke.edu/diseases/ms.html#anchor1

Multiple sclerosis overview. (2013). Retrieved June 4, 2013, from Discovery Fit and Health website: http://health.howstuffworks.com/diseases-conditions/musculoskeletal/multiple-sclerosis4.htm

Multiple sclerosis successfully reversed in animals. (2009, August 11). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from Phys Org website: http://phys.org/news169211700.html

T-Cells. (2007, August 13). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from About.com website: http://lymphoma.about.com/od/glossary/g/tcells.htm

Vitamin b12 and multiple sclerosis. (2008, May 14). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from About.com website: http://ms.about.com/od/livingwellwithms/a/vitamin_b12.htm

What is demyelination? (2012). Retrieved June 6, 2013, from Sick Kids website: http://www.sickkids.ca/Research/mskids/The-Brain-and-Immune-System/What-is-demyelination/What-is-demyelination.html THE END! (Google) (Google) (Google) (Google) (Google)
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