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Copy of Hearing Loss
Transcript of Copy of Hearing Loss
What Does Hearing Loss Sound Like?
Need to face speaker directly
Shame, guilt, anger
Elevated blood pressure
Less available brain power
What if I Have Hearing Loss?
There are many options to assist with better hearing!
Perception of mumbling
Increased difficulty in background noise
Defining Hearing Loss
IDEA defines deafness as a hearing impairment that is so sever that the student is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing (with or without amplification) and the students educational performance is adversely affected.
There are two terms that describe hearing loss, deaf and hard of hearing
To be considered deaf, a person must have a hearing loss of 70 to 90 decibels or greater and be unable to hear even with amplification.
Hard of hearing refers to a person with 20 to 70 decibel range, can use amplification and communicate primarily through speaking.
Congenital deafness is when a child is deaf at birth.
Losses that occur after birth are known as acquired.
Unilateral and bilateral are terms used to describe if hearing loss is in one ear or both ears.
Some people use the term hearing impaired, however the deaf community prefers the term deaf child, they believe the term impaired has a negative connotation.
Compared to other groups of students with disabilities, students with hearing loss are relatively small.
1.2% of the total population of students with disabilities serve under IDEA
In 2008-2009 70,781 students with hearing impairments received special education services and support.
White deaf youth make up 52% of the school age population
Hispanic and Latino youth make up 25% of the total population of of students with hearing loss
The Hearing Process
The hearing process is called audition
When we hear sounds we are really interpreting patterns in movement or vibration of air molecules
Sounds are described in terms of their pitch or frequency (very low to very high) and intensity or loudness ( very soft to very loud)
Frequency is measured in hertz, loudness is measured in decibels.
Most sounds we hear every day occur 250 to 6,000 Hz. Speech is usually 45 dB to 50 dB.
Causes of Hearing Loss
Anatomy of the ear and hearing loss
Hearing Loss in the Classroom
Genetic causes: Hereditary loss occurs in approximately one in 2,000 children. Most hereditary hearing loss is a result of an inherited autosomal recessive gene (80 percent) and is not associated with any type of syndrome.
Prenatal causes: Exposure to viruses, bacteria, and other toxins before or after birth can result in hearing loss. During delivery or in the newborn period, a number of complications, such as lack of oxygen, can damage the hearing mechanism, particularly the cochlea.
Postnatal causes: Infections in infancy and childhood also can lead to a sensorineural hearing loss. The most common cause of hearing loss in children is middle ear disease.
Post lingual causes: A blow to the skull can cause trauma to the cochlea and may lead to a sensorineural hearing loss. It can also damage the middle ear bones, resulting in a conductive loss. Excessive noise can also result in damage.
Characteristics of Hearing Loss
How Hearing is Tested
Hearing loss impairs the development of spoken language, but the IQ range pf students who are deaf or hard of hearing is much the same.
Their delays will vary depending on the level of hearing loss.
Social emotional development is affected by:parent child interaction, peer teacher play, social presence, and feelings of isolation.
Idea provides that a students IEP team must consider the language and communication modes that the student who is deaf or hard of hearing might use in the educational setting.
Research has shown that students with hearing impairments who are in general education classrooms demonstrate higher academic achievement.
Instruction can be provided orally, manually, or both.
Audiometer is a machine used to test hearing, it measures the hearing threshold.
Tympanography tests how well the middle ear is functioning.
Infants up to six months can be tested for hearing loss in two ways: evoked otoacoustic emissions (testing of the cochlea) and screening auditory brain stem response (tests the cochlea and auditory neural pathways).
Auditory brainstem response is a highly sensitive test for both hearing loss and problems in the neural pathway.
Behavioral audiological evaluation is appropriate for testing older children.
Special and general educators, speech-language pathologist, audiologists, interpreters, paraprofessionals,family members, friends, and community members often become partners to contribute to a students language, academic, and social development. In many school districts, an itinerant deaf educator - a paraprofessional who covers several schools in the same school district - often becomes the key member and most informed advocate for the child.
Children who are deaf or hard of hearing typically communicate in one of three ways oral, manual, or simultaneous communication. Speech-language pathologist are responsible for carrying out instruction in speech and aural habilitation. One method that interest both deaf and hearing parents of students with hearing loss is the bilingual/bi cultural program.In lesson planning collaboration is critical when preparing instructions for the students.
Students should be given hands-on experience and taught the relationship among concepts and the multiple meanings of words. Visual aids can show links between words and their categories.
Characteristics of ELL and Hearing Loss
Students with Hearing Loss in General Education Classrooms
Effective Instructional Adaptions
Both ELL and Hearing Loss
In need of translation
Feelings of isolation
Difficult understanding non native language
Primarily uses spoken language
Able to speak in native language without delays
May communicate manually using ASL
May require an amplification device
80% or more of the time: 54%
40% to 79% of the time: 17%
0% to 39% of the time: 16%
Separate settings: 13%
Oral/aural format:This approach is for students with cochlear implants or amplification.
Manual: Communication stresses the use of some form of sign language.
Total or simultaneous communication: This combines as many sources of information as possible (spoken and manual).
Why is determining the cause of hearing loss often complicated?
What does the outer ear consist of and what are the purposes of each part?
Which two ways can infants up to 6 months old be screened for hearing loss?
A cochlea implant is an electronic device that is surgically implanted under the skin behind the ear and contains a magnet that couples to a magnet in a sound transmitter that is worn externally. The cochlea implant does not restore normal hearing or amplify sound. rather it provides a sense of sound to individuals who are profoundly deaf . It gets around the blockage of damaged hair cells in the cochlea by bypassing them and directly stimulating the auditory nerve.
Additional Aids and Services
Sound-field amplification system, the teacher transmits his or her voice by using a lavaliere microphone and ceiling or wall mounted speakers.
Loop system, the students hearing aid allows access to a closed circuit wiring system that sends FM signals from an audio system directly to an electronic coil in the students hearing aid.
Closed captioning, translates dialogue from spoken language to a printed form (captions) that is then inserted at the bottom of the television, movie, or video tape.
Computers and internet, personal computers and software can assist students for example the software C-print provides real time translatin of spoken word.
Size: change the amount the student is expected to learn.
Time: Change the amount of time allowed for learning.
Input: Change the way instruction is presented.
Output: Change the way students respond.
Difficulty: Change the skill level required for a task.
Participation: Allow various levels of student involvement.
Level of support: Change the amount of assistance.
Alternative goals: Use the same materials, different outcome.
Substitute curriculum:Change the materials and instruction.
Type of accommodation
Have students only work on even numbers of questions in the text book.
Allowing additional time for test taking.
When teaching use visual aids and a hand on project for the students.
Allow student to respond to questions verbally, written, and also ussing hand gestures.
Allow notes or cheat sheets for test taking.
Allow manipulative for assistance with math work or tests.
Seat students strategically to help support one another in addition to teacher support.
Have students to think of all the different ways they can memorize the multiplication tables.
Break students into groups each working on different material related to the same subject.
Make sure the student understands activities and what is expected before hand.
Work closely with the schools deaf educator and educational interpreter to team teach the student.
Be sure the other students face the child when talking and raise their hands before speaking so the child has time to face the student and the interpreter can stand by the student speaking.
Check that the child's assistive technology is on and working, and interpreting needs are being met.
Response to Intervention
RTI allows professionals to identify students who are not making progress in a timely manner and make the necessary instructional changes based on individual needs. The most common monitoring of students with hearing impairment is literacy assessment, and the second is math facts. Some teachers use continuous monitoring to track amplification use. The use of maze passages for reading comprehension can be successfully used with students with hearing impairments. Maze passages are narrative fictitious passages that have been set up for progress monitoring assessment.