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anatomy of the ear
Transcript of anatomy of the ear
OF THE EAR Group 4
Ariela Cuellar, Christian DeGuzman, Raechel Jacala, Arjay Ochave, Angelica Rodulfo HEARING auricle
external auditory meatus the organs of static equilibrium sense the position of the head, maintaining stability and posture when the head and body are still eyes move in the direction opposite that in which the head is moved; present in patients with brain stem problems Causes: DYNAMIC
EQUILIBRIUM DOLL'S EYES
REFLEX Utricle / Saccule Macula Otolith Ampulla the head & body suddenly move or rotate Crista Ampullaris Cupula - the absence of the reflex indicates that brain stem function is preserved various proprioceptors inform the brain about the position of body parts the eyes detect changes in posture that result from body movements ANATOMY EXTERNAL MIDDLE tympanic membrane tympanic cavity auditory ossicles malleus, incus, stapes INTERNAL osseous labyrinth membraneous labyrinth damage to the inner ear
gradual buildup of earwax
infections GENETIC OR
ENVIRONMENTAL It can be both, depending on the situation. Rehabilitation: surgery
cochlear implants auditory cortex Types: conductive
mixed collects sound waves
send vibrations through the small bones of the middle ear HEARING
LOSS 95% of cases conductive located on superior temporal gyrus in temporal lobe
receives point-to-point input from the ventral division of the medial geniculate complex AUDITORY NERVE PATHWAYS auricle 2 tests used to identify conductive deafness: CONDUCTIVE: sound is not conducted through the outer ear canal to the eardrum and the tiny bones of the middle ear
SENSORINEURAL: damage in the inner ear, or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain
MIXED: combination of conductive & sensorineural 1) the cochlear branches enter the auditory nerve pathways that extend into the medulla oblongata and proceed through the midbrain to the thalamus Weber and Rinne Test * some fibers cross over so that impulses arising from each ear are interpreted on both sides of the brain * ANCILLARY STRUCTURES sensory structures that aid in maintaining equilibrium common disorder of the auditory: otosclerosis malleus, incus, stapes 2) they pass into the auditory cortices of the temporal lobes of the cerebrum & are interpreted - the organs of dynamic equilibrium detect such motion & aid in maintaining balance