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Transcript of CHILD LABOUR
The child labour refers to the employment of children in any job, which will interfere to their process of childhood, their attending to school, and that is mentally, physically and morally harmful for them.
During history, child labour has always existed. In Europe and USA before the 1940`s, a lot of children aged from 5-14 had to work. They had to work in agriculture , home based assembly operations, factories, mining and more. Some of them had to work during night for over 12 hours.
Nowadays, in poor/developing countries, child labour still exists. In 2010 a study showed that in some African nations, about 50% of kids aged 5-14, were submitted to child labour, being the place with the highest rate of child labour of the world.
It is considered exploitive by many organizations of the world. Child labour is considered illegal all around the world. It is now considered to be a violation of human rights by wealthy countries. Those rules don’t include child artists, supervised training, and other categories of work.
The international labour organism suggests that poverty is the single cause of child labour. For poor households, the income that comes from a child`s work is simply crucial for their survival. Although child`s income is low, it could be the 40% of the house hold total income.
What is it?
-Another reason for child labour is the lack of alternatives, good schools or education. Some of them just work because they have nothing better to do
- In most rural communities, there is lack of education, so kids end up working. Sometimes, schools are even available, but they are so far away, difficult to get to, unaffordable, or the education level is so bad that the parents doubt if going to school is really worth it.
There`s also some cultural causes for child labour. In Europe, when child labour was common, certain cultural beliefs have allowed and encouraged child labour. Some people view that child labour was an important key for character building and skill development of the kids
In other cultures, it is important that kids follow their parents steps, so they are obligated to start learning and working since an early age. On the other hand, girls are thought to not need formal education, so they are pushed to do house and domestic services.
- During the industrial revolution, children as young as 4 were employed in dangerous and fatal working conditions of factories.
- During the Victorian era, a lot of young children were obligated to work since a young age, because they were either abandoned, or their parents had been killed. Children worked as miners, errand boys, crossing sweepers, shoe blacks, sellers, or domestic servants.
- In the early 1900s thousands of boys were employed in glass making factories. This was a really dangerous process, and it was a really tough job without the current technologies. A lot of these children had eye trouble, heat exhaustion, cut and burns.
- A high number of children also worked as prostitutes
- During most of the 20th century, lots of French, Australian, Briitish and Austrian kids had to work the seven days a week. The industry child labour reduced, and work moved from factories to urban homes. The parents made their kids work to earn some income.
- Nowadays, in the 21st century, child labour is still common in many parts of the world. About 60% of the labour involves agricultural activities such as farming, dairy, fisheries and forestry.
- Another 25% of child labour consists in service activities like retail, hawking goods. Restaurants, load and transfer of goods, storage, recycling trash, domestic help, and many other services.
- The last 15% consists in manufacturing, home based enterprises, factories, mining, packaging salt, operating machines. Also, two thirds child workers work for their parents, in unpaid family work situations.
- Some children work as guides for tourists.
- Nowadays 70% of child labour occurs in rural areas, while 26% in the urban sector.
- 22% child labour occurs in Asia, 32% in Africa, 17% in latin America, 1% in US, Canada, Europe and other wealthy nations.
- Asia, with the largest population, has the highest number of children employed with about 114 million kids working. Then comes Africa with a total of over 65 million kids.
BY ESTEBAN CARVAJAL 9R