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The "Gilded Age"
Transcript of The "Gilded Age"
The reconstruction brought bad and good outcomes.
New laws and lawmen tried to bring about security.
New opportunities were brought around by new technology and industry.
Woman gained new rights and opportunities.
5 percent of the population was rich and 95 was poor.
Mark Twain and Charles Warner called this period the “Gilded Age”.
African American men participated in the constitutional convention of 1874.
In order to create a new south local government promoted racial peace by attracting a new industry crops and immigrants to the state they hoped to create a more diverse economy.
Other concerns facing the governor and redeemer democrats including funding education lower taxes prison reforms and maintaining law and order on the western frontier.
Lawmen and judges had to cover large areas traveling over roads that were difficult to travel.
Beyond Arkansas territory was untamed indian territory, many criminals hid in this territory to avoid justice like Henry Starr the husband of the infamous Belle Starr.
Isaac Parker a loyal republican brought order to the time through hanging some people believed it was too harsh but he said
“I have ever had the single aim of justice in view… do equal and exact justice, is my motto, and I have often said to the grand jury, permit no innocent man to be punished, but let no guilty man escape.”
The first railroads were laid in 1850s, they only covered a short distance.
When the civil war started the tracks covered less than 100 miles.
During the reconstruction, republicans made railroads a priority, and eventually connected little rock with Memphis, Tennessee.
By the end of the 19th century more than 2,000 miles of track were set. Most of the railroads were owned by northern industrialists sometimes called, robber barons. he was known for being a heartless self-absorbed businessman.
Because of the growth of railroads many new towns formed, community’s would gather for the arrival of the train.
Improved transportion opportunities led to the spread of cotton farming, strawberry and apple production, mining and harvesting Arkansas trees.
Communities that weren't passed by the railroad often died.
African Americans were one of the largest groups of immigrants, from the southern states.
There was less violence and discrimination due to better, social, educational and political opportunities.
Europeans also immigrated in large numbers.
Some of the larger groups were Polish, Greek, French, Italian, German, Swiss, and Chinese.
One of the earliest German settlements was in Delta town of Stuttgart in Arkansas county.
They started growing rice which later grew as an excellent cash crop.
This rice is and was sold to countries all around the world.
These fields attract ducks during their migration time.
Soon, by the mid-1900s, duck hunting was an important industry in Arkansas.
Because of this, it is known as, “The Rice and Duck Capital of the World.”
Railroad companies saw the beauty in Arkansas as a business.
They advertised an all-expense paid journey through Arkansas hoping for new immigrants to settle in Arkansas.
Immigrants slowly, but steadily, settled in Arkansas
He was born in Italy
He became a catholic priest around age 25
Around the same time, he started helping Italian immigrants establish themselves in the United States.
For this job, he moved to New York City.
Later on he moved to Arkansas to help struggling farmers.
Here convinced 35 struggling families to move to the Ozark mountains.
These families ended up in Washington county buying up around 800 acres.
They called this area Tonti -town after Henri de Tonti.
They established a culture center and schools.
Bandini invited all cultures to festivals and this helped promote understanding of the diversities.
Though, today, Tontitown is merged into Springdale, it still shows its unique diversity and culture.
The Temperance Movement
The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was created in an attempt to stop the production and sale of alcohol which was becoming a problem in the US.
The legislature finally passed a law that made it illegal to be sold within three miles of churches or schools.
Although women had the right to petition to shut down any establishment breaking this law they still did not have the right to vote.
Women were attempting to create a
Due to the help of another group of people called the prohibitionists, the Arkansas legislature finally prohibited all alcohol in the state.
Finally shortly after the state became bone dry, the 18th amendment in the constitution banned alcohol across the state.
no liquor of any kind was allowed
Section 1: After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Section 2: The Congress and the several states shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Section 3: This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several states, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission here of to the states by the Congress.
The 18th Amendment
The Timber Industry
With improved access to national markets, many industries began robbing Arkansas of its natural resources. One in particular, was the lumber industry.
The Ozarks and Ouachitas was once covered in lumber; all this lumber was used by lumber industries.
New short line railroads had been built which made it easier to access the forests of AR. With these railroad company could transfer the lumber, and sell in the east.
Many lumber company’s built factors all over AR
Once trees were gone companies would move to another location
When companies move workers were sometimes forced to move with the company
When companies left they would leave barely any trees left, some forests would be almost bare of any trees. one these trees were gone the wildlife would go with them.
1920 = less than 2,000 remainded
For almost 30 years AR forests were exploited by lumber companies
Continued . . .
Tale of Lumber Town
In the early 1900s, the Grayson-Mcleod lumber company had there workers working in a small town called graysonia along the banks of the Antoine river.
The company eventually owned a town with over 1000 people living there there are homes, a post office, three hotels, a school, a church, a general store, and an ice house. Unlike most of Arkansas, this place had electricity. This town was also segregated blacks and whites worked and lived in different quarters.
United states went to war against the spanish army in 1898
In the war, President McKinley sent 2 army units.
These 2 army units were formed to support Cuban efforts.
This war helped family farm units in the US to bring more money to them.
When the war ended Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands became american property.
Jefferson Davis was one of the most famous progressive leaders.
He grew up though he did not say this in his words, he grew up as one of Russellville’s leading families.
He did not accomplish much during his term as governor
His political service in the US senate both helped and hurt the nation.
When leaders started to take action on the amount of education that the children were learning, fewer than 50% were attending school.
Health concerns: Progressive leaders had a goal to improve the health within the county
Diseases got so bad to the point that they had to quarantine some parts of the United States.
Science and health care have helped eliminate many of the destructive diseases
Spanish American War
In the 20th century, prisoners were leased to paying companies who would pay the sate for their labor.
Soon people found out that prisoners were being beaten, given little to eat, and denied medical attention after year changes were made
Over 360 prisoners were freed
Finally convinced being leased in the state was outlawed
Women had began protests to have the right to vote.
The protest to be able to vote so that they would be able to change state laws.
2 major writing came out of this time period
Arkansas Ladies’ Journal
1917 women were finally given the right to vote
the right was given to white women only.
2 years later the government changed the 19th Amendment
The Elaine Riots
Because of the Jim Crow Law the black had been excluded
Black sharecroppers were constantly intimidated by white planters
Tensions ran high throughout the delta
Black stood guard outside of the Union meeting
1 shot went off and set off 2 days of mob violence
Some say that black were hunted and gunned down
No correct number of how many were killed though some think it was around a few hundred
Governor Brough sent Army to restore order
Continued . . .
From 1880 until the middle of the 20th century, more than 250 Arkansans were lynched.
Most of these people were African Americans - very few were white.
In average, more than 20 African Americans died in one year because of lynching.
Whites punished the blacks because they were afraid of them.
They would do this by holding fake trials against them.
Very few blacks were actually guilty but, no matter their innocency, they would be hanged.
“By the beginning of WWI, Arkansas ranked third in the nation for unlawful lynching” says The Arkansas Journey.
For the first time, Populist and Republican African Americans and whites united to elect one governor.
Democrats promised to win the election by any means.
Just like they said, the Democrats cheated and were cruel to win the election.
Later, to stop conflicts like this to come again, Democrats passed new laws to prevent African American voters out of state politics.
Railroads gave mining companies the ability to transport large loads of ore and minerals out of state quarries and mines.
An important mineral that was discovered is bauxite.
It is the main ingredient in aluminum. Soon, bauxite became an important export in Arkansas.
Companies such as the Aluminum Company of America bought Arkansas’s bauxite mines.
During WWI, the demand for bauxite increased because of the increase in demand for aluminum.
Later on, in the 1940s, millions of tons of bauxite was mined to provide the WWII’s aircraft industry. Mining operations continued in Arkansas until about 1990.
Bauxite . . .
Continued . . .
The Governor had sent investigator to find out what happened
later 12 black men were tried for murder by an all white jury
further investigation was put into order and another trial was held, the men were released
this event showed that the right still did not equalize all rights to all people
Continued . . .
Coal in another important mineral mined in various parts of Arkansas.
Mines in the Arkansas River Valley, the Ozark Mountains, and some of the first mines in Johnson County produced coal for more than 40 years.
For a while, coal was our state’s number one mineral export.
Miners also extracted iron, mercury, manganese, and phosphate from Arkansas soils.
But like lumber companies, once the ore or mineral was depleted from an area, mining companies shut down and moved to mew locations.
Mine success was also subject prices dropped, mines struggled to pay their employees and some were forced to close.
Miners worked long hours and faced many hazards underground.
Sometimes they dug in pockets of deadly gas of developed a condition called “black lung.”
Mine cave-ins were another daily risk.
Still, many rural Arkansans needed the steady income, so they accepted the risks in order to support their families.
The Rise and Fall
of a Mining Town
Rush was one of many mining cities in NWA.
It developed because of the zinc discovered along Rush Creek.
The Morning Star mine was the first sites to find zinc deposits.
Later, it became one of the most productive sites.
Because of the discovery, Rush quickly became a mining boom town.
"Eventually, it was home to almost 5,000 people, a hotel, a movie theater, a doctor’s office, and hundreds of houses." says
The Arkansas Journey.
During WWI, zinc mining increased because the demand for minerals was higher.
When the war ended, the demand for zinc declined and the town of Rush Creed slowly died.
The once flourishing community is now, an abandoned town.
Continued . . .
World War I
Began in Europe in 1917.
It was between Russia, France, and Great Britain (Allies) and Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey(Central Powers).
President Woodrow Wilson tried to keep the United States out of the war, but later joined the war.
Arkansas, to support war efforts, bought $1.8 million in war bonds.
By the end of the war many soldiers had become heroes of either national or international, Arkansas made it to the top 100 heroes of the Great War List.