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Transcript of Psychology
By Lexy Hanson and Nicole Loew
This chapter talks a lot on the body, its systems and how they work with the environment and past relatives (Heredity).
Nervous system in section 1
The brain section 2
The Endocrine System section 3
Heredity and the Environment section 4
(CNS) and (PNS)
Nervous system controls
Emotions, movements, thinking and BEHAVIOR.
Two parts to the Nervous System
1. (CNS)-Central nervous system- which is (the brain and spinal cord).
2. [PNS]- Peripheral nervous system (the smaller and other parts of the body.)
1. Somatic Nervous System (SNS)-
refers to the part of the Peripheral Nervous System that controls voluntary activities that cause movement of skeletal muscles.
EX:heart beat/blood pressure/ and pupils
Inner parts of the brain that help it function
Has three basic parts
Send messages from the brain to the rest of the body
It is a chemical electrical signal down the neurons like flames traveling along a fuse.
Nerve cells are minimum and
then they becomes simulated
1. Cell-contains the nucleus that produces energy needed to fuel neuron activity.
2.Dendrites-are short,thin fibers that stick out of the cell body. also they receive impulses and messages from the neurons.
3. Axon-Long (and,or) short fibers that carries impulses away from the cell body towards the dendrites of the next neuron.
Synapses- the gap that exists between individual nerve cells or simple put space between neurons.
The Body and its systems
They have chemical locks and receptors that can be or get excited
there are many examples
norepinephrine- memory and learning
acetylcholine-involves movement and menory
dopamine- learning, movement, memory, emotion,and arousal
can be on/off by the brain impulses.
Afferent-neurons, sensory, messages, and organs.
Efferent- motor neurons,sends signals, from the brain to the glands, to mussels.
Inter-neurons- are impulses in the body between body and neurons.
Voluntary and Involuntary Activities
2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)- refers to the part of that controls involuntary activities also it controls internal biological functions.
EX:heart beat and stomach activity
A) Sympathetic-oxygen, body tissue, energizes and speeds up the nerves for strenuous activity. has receptors to parts of the body to recive and send messages.
B) parasympathetic-enhances the body's ability to recover from strenuous exercise and movement.
1) Hind-brain> is located at the rear of the Skull and is the most basic process life
2) Mid-brain> is a small part of the above the pon's that integrates sensory information and relays it upward.
3) Fore-brain> covers the brains central core, includes the (Thalamus),which integrates sensory input.
Cerebellum-located behind the spinal cord and helps posture and balance.
Medulla-controls breathing heart rate and reflex's.
Pon's-is a bridge between the spinal cord and brain, also has chemicals that produce body needs for sleep.
contains the brain stem
Reticular activating system (RAS)
(RAS)-serves as an alert system and helps the sleep cycle and wake cycle to incoming signals.
and more are in the forebrain
Lobes- are dividing the cerebral cortex into two parts called hemispheres.
information from senses to/ from the body
hearing, memory, emotions, and speaking
Organization, planning, and creative thinking
Left and Right Hemispheres
Roger Sperry 1950-60's
Physiology and medicine investigation of the brain functions and was the construction of a mental map and its functions.
wired the (CNS)split brain research
believed split hemispheres=consciousness and behavioral investigations in both
animals and humans.
Recording and Image
Devices for the Brain
Methods on the brain
1) Electroencephalograph (EEG)-is a machine used to record data of the electrical activity of the large portions of the brain.
observes a rhythm pattern on a persons sleep pattern like(wake,asleep,or drowsy.
2) Methods to experiment with the control and the emotional behavior in otherwise uncontrollable patients.
3) Remove or cut part of the brain to see how the patient/ behavior change or adapt with part of their brain missing.
4) Phineas Gage 1848
he was a railroad worker and some dynamite blew up and his attitude became short tempered after his ACCIDENT. 1994 (Damasio & Damasio) examined his brain/ skull they found damage to his frontal lobes.
had a theory on a young man whose left brain was severely damaged.
his discovery became correct when he found the connection between brain and speech.
1970 Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan.
1994 Positron emission tomography (PET)
1994 Magnetic resonance image (MRI)
CAT-an X-Ray beam to find problems in the brain
can cause radiation.
PET- shows different parts of the brain like thinking, speaking, and objects.
MRI-to study both brain activity and brain structures
Adrenaline and Epinephrine are hormones that declare an emergency situation to the body, requiring the body to become very active.
1 of 2 types of systems that send information to/ from the brain.
Endocrine System sends messages called HORMONES
HORMONES- are produced in the Endocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands- distribute blood and other bodily fluids.
Endocrine Glands are other wise known as the duct glands that send fluids through the digestive system and and the surface of the body.
Hormones affect the bodily growth through muscles,bones, and metabolic process. Also boys and girls are different in this process because boys have TESTOSTERONE and girls have HORMONES. HORMONES affect the brain as well.
-master gland,they are located near the Mid-Brain and Hypothalamus, which controls the output of hormones by the Endocrine glands. They carry messages to organs. for females it controls ovulation, reproduction, and lactation.
produces hormone thyroxine and it stimulates chemical reactions for the tissue of the body. this causes laziness and way too much Thyroxine can cause weight loss known as HYPERTHYROIDISM
- has action when your frighted and angry. they release EPINEPHRINE and nor-epinephrine(adrenaline and noradrenaline)to the bloodstream. Heart beat and breathing ingress and they can be heightened by emotions like fear and anxiety. Cortical steroids help muscles develop and cause the liver to release stored sugar for emergencies.
produce sperms in the Testosterone
parental period and adolescence is very important
parental decides the fetus sex
adolescence helps growth of muscle and bones with the males growth in sex characteristics
produce female hormones estrogen and progesterone
they are important in the development of female sex characteristics
regulate hormones for the reproduction cycle and the menstrual cycle
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
PMS has these symptoms such as fatigue, irritability and depression.
Section 4Last Section
Heredity and Environment
is the genetic transmission of characteristics from parents to their offspring.
Nature V.S Nurture
Nature refers to environmental factors like
family, education, culture, and individual experiences
Sir Francis Galton
basic parts of heredity are genes. they reproduce and send those gene to their offspring this can cause physical structure
if the parents are musicians than the child will most likely have a musical capabilities
Identical twins develop from a single fertilized egg. and share the same genes.
Fraternal twins are developed from two fertilized eggs and their genes are not more similar than a brother/sister.