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Copy of How can we foster motivation through real-world learning?
Transcript of Copy of How can we foster motivation through real-world learning?
Determines specific goals
Affects what students pay attention to
Often leads to enhanced performance
Motivation differs for each individual and incentives affect motivation:
Pride in doing well
Desire for accomplishment
Competition with themselves
A sense of belonging
Values and ethics
Science & Maths
Problem Based Learning
learning based on questions
making learning relevant to things happening in students' lives
lets you connect learning areas through a problem
Intrinsic motivation of students (Intrinsically motivated students undertake an activity for its enjoyment or challenge.
Extrinsic rewards (External benefits and rewards are not needed to encourage motivation)
The teacher (the way teacher gets messages across)
The curriculum (a curriculum that does not meet the needs of the student or does not interest them)
The school setting (a school that is not suited to a particular way of learning that benefits the student)
Claire M. Mowling
Participation in school physical education (PE) may affect students’ motivation to engage in physical activity because it has the potential to provide both positive and negative experiences for the student population (Hagger et al., 2003; McKenzie, 2007; Pratt et al., 1999).
Drama & English
Make connections & relate to real-life
Align to central learning goals
Tap into student's lives, interests, goals, family backgrounds, areas of expertise, curiosity... - not always the dominant discourse
Topic applications: literacy, communication, confidence, team-work, problem solving...
How can we foster motivation through real-world learning?
'enables people to create meaning...interact effectively, build and maintain relationships, express and exchange their knowledge, skills, attitudes, feelings and opinions...
(ACARA English Rationale)
Class discussion: speaking, reading, writing and listening in student's daily lives?
McLeod, S., 2007
ACS Distance Education. (2011). How to Motivate People to Learn. Retrieved from http://www.acs.edu.au/info/distance-and-online-education/adult-education/motivating-learning.aspx. Accessed on 2nd October 2014
Alderfer, C.P., (1999) Theories Reflecting My Personal Experience and Life Development, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, vol. 25, no.4, pp 351-365
Alderman, B., Beighle, A. & Pangrazi, R., 2006, Enhancing Motivation in Physical Education, JOPERD, Vol. 77 No. 2
Bull, B. (2013). 10 Ideas for Designing an Engaging Classroom Space. Retreived from http://etale.org/main/2013/08/10/10-ideas-for-designing-an-engaging-classroom-space/. Accessed on 30th September 2014
Claire M. Mowling, Sheri J. Brock, Kim K. Eiler and Mary E. Rudisill, 2004, Student motivation in physical education: breaking down barriers; Student motivation in physical education typically declines after the early years. Why? And what can be done about it? The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 75, 6.
Dorger,M. (2014, February 5). Acid, Acid Everywhere [web log post]. Retrieved from http://scs5w2013.blogspot.com.au/2014/02/acid-acid-everywhere.html
Gallagher, S. A., Sher, B. T., Stepien, W. J., & Workman, D. (1995). Implementing problem‐based learning in science classrooms. School Science and mathematics, 95(3), 136-146.
Hagger M.S., Chatzisarantis N.L.D., Culverhouse T., Biddle S.J.H. (2003) The processes by which perceived autonomy support in physical education promotes leisure-time physical activity intentions and behavior: A trans-contextual model. Journal of Educational Psychology 95, 784-795
Hmelo-Silver, C. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: What and how do students learn?. Educational Psychology Review, 16(3), 235-266.
Killen,R. (2013). Using problem solving as a teaching strategy in Killen,R. (Eds.), Effective Teaching Strategies: lessons from research and practice. South Melbourne: Cengage Learning Australia
Kilpatrick, M., Hebert, E., & Jacobsen, D. (2002). Physical activity motivation: A practitioner's guide to self-determination theory. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 73(4), 36-41.
Kstashuk. (2007). Creating a Positive Classroom Environment. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/kstashuk/creating-a-positive-classroom-environment. Accessed on 24th September 2014
Lepper, M. (1988). Motivational considerations in the study of instruction. Cognition and Instruction, 5, 289-309.
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Light, R. (2012). Game sense: pedagogy for performance, participation and enjoyment. Routledge.
Maehr, M. L., & Midgley, C. (1991). Enhancing student motivation: A schoolwide approach. Educational psychologist, 26(3-4), 399-427.
Martain, C.A., & Bush, A. J. (2000). Do role models influence teenagers’ purchase intentions and behaviour? Journal of consumer marketing. 17(5), 441-453
McKenzie T.L. (2007) The preparation of physical educators: A public health perspective. Quest 59, 346-357
There are 6 potential barriers to motivation in Physical Education
MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Allow students freedom to make choices
Modify skills and activities
Engage students in learning relevant to their lives outside of school, activating prior knowledge, family background, student strengths & interests. Allow students creativity and flexibility in tasks - student directed learning.
Provide optimal challenges for every student
Engage students in decision making process
Modifying the space and equipment in the classroom as well as the rules they obey.
Through multiple learning styles thats cater for all individuals.
IMPORTANT IN PE
Measure and monitor- set goals
Outcomes- optimally challenging
Time- goals can be reached in time
Individualized- Students own goal
Valuable- Goal has value
Active- activity is a component
Incremental- developmentally appropriate
Overload- steps included to achieve students best
Necessary- Goal is important
Authentic assessment- related to goal and outcome expected
Lifestyle- tied to achieving healthy lifestyle
Posted but private- commitment to goal
Ayers, S & Sariscsany, M.J., 2011
1. Students are assigned to groups and given an initial problem
2. They consider the problem and fill in a table to help organise their thoughts and plan what to do next.
What do we know? What do we need to know? How will we find out?
3. Students research individually, share findings with others and consolidate ideas
4. Students systematically develop knowledge, understanding and skills through their own research, information provided by the teacher and revisions and amendments to the initial problem.
5. Students organise their information and present it to others
1. Initiate learning with a problem
2. Use ill-structured problems
3. Metacognitive coach
MOTIVATION IN PE
Student centered learning environment
High quality Physical Education program that in addition to being standard based
Promotes student centered learning environment
Fosters student engagement and learning
Increases likelihood of transfer outside of PE into real world
Can be achieved by doing something as simple as choice in what they do in class
MOTIVATION WITH THE USE OF GAMEPLAY
Education thought of as work rather than fun
Not always the case, especially in Physical Education
Idea of using Game Sense in lessons is becoming more popular in todays society
Means learning through playing games rather than traditional skill-drill
Games in PE lessons help motivate and engage students as they see it as a fun way of learning
Using Game Sense teaches students important skills in real world situations and gives them an opportunity to practice skills under pressure situations
Helps them when in the real world
SPORTS ROLE MODELS AND THEIR IMPACT ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
Sports stars can make great role models
Show benefits of healthy lifestyle
Help motivate students to be strong and fit and live healthy, active lifestyles
Highlights the role sports stars play in the everyday lives of children
Can be a once off visit from relevant sports star
Most effective role model programs are those that focus on developing a long term mentor relationship
Important to choose the right role models for YOUR children
Not all sports stars are adequate role models for our students
Media has shown athletes neglect their role model duty
For example, Lance Armstrong and the use of performance enhancing drugs
An effective positive classroom learning environment ensures students feel:
Safe and nurtured
Have a sense of belonging
Feel that everyone is valued and respected
Rows (independent work)
U-Shape (eye contact)
Workstations (if they have self management skills)
Appropriate for age group and linked to learning
Be aware of over decorating
Teachers and Students
How can we foster motivation through real-world learning?
Relationships between student and teacher:
Positive (engagement and trust)
Know your students (likes and interests)
Relevance of Content:
Explain why you have chosen your teaching methods and how it can be applied in the real world
Make it fun and engaging (enthusiasm)
Use humor where appropriate
Give attention to all students
Praise students equally
Appeal to multiple learning styles
Transition into Real World
Student Responsibility in forms of:
Class pets and plants (keep them alive!)
Parent/Carer and Community Involvement:
Student show and tell (show off what they know)
Matching school learning to what is happening in the community
Bringing community members into the classroom
Participating in community events
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic or internal motivation is an individual’s drive for doing something.
Should be encouraged to be the main form of motivation.
Extrinsic or external motivation is where students value the reward they receive after doing something.
The problem with this is if the rewards no longer motivate learning.
'It’s important that students have a real-world connection... Students become motivated when they can relate to a concept or find a reason for it’s learning...getting students to measure a room of a house plan, draw out their interior design and measurements in this space and then use the IKEA catalogue to choose the correct furniture...'
'In Drama I’ve discovered that students have a greater depth of understanding when they can relate to a concept. Bringing in their own experiences and background ... By tapping into their current
knowledge they feel a sense of ownership and intelligence,
which allows them to feel safe to branch off from that and
learn new experiences.'
'My favourite subject is Auto Tech, because I want to do an apprenticeship in Auto when I leave school... so I like learning about cars and then I can work on my own car too'
(Obtained via personal contact)
The task they are asked to do
The autonomy students are allowed in their working
How students are recognised for their accomplishments
Scheduling time in the classroom
Motivation and Problem Based LearninG
Problem Based Learning
McLeod, S., 2007, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, simple psychology, updated 2014, URL: http://www.simplypsychology.org/maslow.html Pratt M., Macera C.A., Blanton C. (1999) Levels of physical activity and inactivity in children and adults in the United States: Current evidence and research issues. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 31, 526-533 [PubMed]
Nilson. (2010). Teaching at its Best. Retrieved from http://www.crlt.umich.edu/sites/default/files/resource_files/Nilson-adaptedmotivation.pdf. Accessed on 2nd October 2014
Ormrod, J.E. (2014). How motivation effects learning and behavior. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/motivation-affects-learning-behavior/. Accessed on 23rd September 2014
Ormond, M. (2011) Educational Psychology: developing learners. (p.375). Boston: Pearson
Rasberry, C., Lee, S., Robin, L., Laris, B., Russell, L., Coyle, K, & Nihiser, A. (2011). The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: A systematic review of the literature. Prevention Medicine, 52, 10 – 20.
Reynolds, M., Brown, S., & Fleming, A. (2003). Sports role models and their impact on participation in physical activity: a literature review. Victoria, BC: Vic health.
Richards, K. A. R., & Wilson, W. J. (2012) Advocacy in action: Quality assurance in physical education, Strategies, 25(7), 36 – 37.
Roudhahtul Isa. (2012). The Effects of the Classroom Learning Environment to the Primary School Student's Learning. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/roudhah17/classroom-environment-14589746. Accessed on 20th September 2014
Shabait Administrator. (2010). What Motivation is and Why It is Important in Classroom Situation. Retrieved from http://www.shabait.com/categoryblog/3200-what-motivation-is-and-why-it-is-important-in-classroom-situation. Accessed on 26th September 2014
SHAPE America- Society of Health and Physical Educators, Ayers, S & Sariscsany, M.J., 2011, Physical Education for Lifelong Fitness, 3rd Edition
Skinner, E. A., & Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of educational psychology, 85(4), 571.
Stepien, W., & Gallagher, S. (1993). Problem-based learning: As authentic as it gets. Educational leadership, 50, 25-25.
Taras, H. (2005). Physical activity and student performance at school. Journal of school Health, 75(6), 214 – 218.
Wuest, D. A., & Bucher, C. A. (2009). Foundations of physical education, exercise science, and sport. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
How can we foster motivation through real-world learning?