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Viral Infections of the Eye

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Crystal Krolikowski

on 25 November 2013

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Transcript of Viral Infections of the Eye

Viral Infections of the Eye
Keratitis
CMV Retinitis
What it is & Symptoms
What is it?
Inflammation of the cornea

Symptoms
Pain, tearing, blurred vision, sensitivity to light
Pain can range from mild-severe
Eye may appear red, watery
Cornea may appear to have white or grey areas

Bharati Goyal, Crystal Krolikowski, Kaitlin Weiss, Ashli Willison
What is it?
The most common form of conjunctivitis
Inflammation of the conjunctiva
Not a serious infection, but very contagious

Viral Conjunctivitis
What Causes it
Infection or exposure to viruses
Non viral conjunctivitis (bacterial, chemical, allergy) are contracted in other ways
Poor hand washing is a major contributing factor in the spread of pink eye
Anything that can spread the infection such as sharing towels or clothing, or even touching a doorknob and then your eye

Symptoms & How to Diagnose it
Usually starts in one eye and then spreads to the other
White of the eye appears pink/red
Watery eyes/tearing
Discomfort
May have discharge which can “glue” the eyelids together
On rare occasions, may create cloudy spots in the cornea
Usually hard to differentiate between viral and bacterial pink eye based solely on appearance, so a sample can be sent to a laboratory to identify the problem
Treatment
No medical treatment for viral conjunctivitis, just have to take preventative measures
Let it run its course, and usually goes away on its own after a week

Prevention
Wash your hands frequently and well
Use hand sanitizer if you can't wash hands
Avoid touching your eyes, other people, sharing items (especially those that come in close proximity to the eyes)
Change/clean pillowcases frequently
Periodically use warm compresses
If you get pink eye and are a user of contact lenses or glasses, discontinue use of those contact lenses and/or regularly disinfect glasses to prevent re-infection

Herpes Simplex Virus
Symptoms & Diagnosis
Symptoms
Redness around cornea
Painful eye
Discomfort with bright light
Watery eye
blurred vision
Conjunctiva may occur

Diagnosis
Doctor examines with magnifier
May see small ulcer (erosion)
The Ulcer is called Dendritic ulcer

Causes
Various types of infections, dry eyes, injury and a variety of medical diseases
Small percentage is developed from unknown factors
Physical or chemical trauma
UV light from the sun, tanning lights, an overwear of ones contact lenses
Gases and other liquids splashed into the eyes can cause non-infectious keratitis

Types of Keratitis
Classified by its location, cause and severity
Called Superficial Keratitis if only the epithelium is affected
Called Stromal Keratitis if the stroma is affected
Can affect both eyes, and can be mild-severe
Main virus is the common cold and herpes simplex. Also Herpes Zoster

Treatment & Prevention
Treatment
Infectious keratitis requires antibacterial, anti-fungal, or antiviral therapy, eye drops or pills
Corneal conjunctival foreign bodies should be removed
If wearing contact lenses, it is advised to discontinue wear, especially if they are the cause

Prevention
Safety precautions to avoid eye injury
Cleaning contact lenses properly and often
Getting treatment at first sign of symptoms
What is it?
Cytomegalovirus Retinitis
Infection that attacks the light-sensing cells in the retina.
Very serious
Can lead to loss of vision and in worst cases blindness
Can occur in other parts of body, commonly in gastrointestinal system and the retina.

Causes & Symptoms
Causes
AIDS Virus
Weakened immune systems
Most infections happen when a person’s T cell count drops below 40

Symptoms
Floaters in eye
Flashes in eye
Blind spots 
Blurred vision
Loss of peripheral vision

Treatments
See a retina specialist
Several medications to minimize effects
only one eye is infected, receiving proper systemic treatment early to protect other eye
Oral, injected and through Intravenous (IV) medication used

Prevention
Improve immune system health
For HIV positive people: Take HIV medications on regular basis
Yearly eye exams from an ophthalmologist should become part of health routine

What is it?
Who it Affects
1-2 people in 1000 will experience herpes simplex eye infection
Most common time is ages 30-40
More common with people who get cold sore or wear contact lenses
Two types of herpes – type one causes cold sores and herpes simplex
Type two is genital herpes. Rarely cause eye infections
The virus travels down the branch of nerves to the eye
Mostly only infects top layer of the cornea
Other organs are able to get infected
Retina or iris may also be affected

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