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Free at Last? Introduction

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Mr Farrell

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Free at Last? Introduction

Free at Last? 1918-1968 "An American is somebody who came from somewhere else to become someone else." The USA in 1920 - A melting pot of people In 1900 the USA was a mixture of all sorts of people This was the idea that one ‘American’ culture could be created from many different nationalities. Push Factors are reasons why people want to leave their own country, things that push them away. PUSH Pull Factors are factors which make another country seem attractive, they are reasons which pull people towards them. PULL In 1800 the population of America was only 2 million By 1920 it had increased to over 100 million The American Dream America was viewed as a ‘Land of Opportunity’ Greater chance of employment . A place where if you worked hard you would be rewarded with a better standard of living. Religious freedom. A fresh start away from previous life. America was more accessible to many In New York in 1910 there were 66 languages and 44 different cultures. Give me your tired, your poor, your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, the wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost, to me. I lift my lamp beside the golden door. Give me your tired and poor people, the crowds of poor people who want a better life, the poor who live in your overcrowded cities. Send the homeless who have suffered from storms and war to me. I promise them a bright new future of freedom and a new life. Use the verse at the bottom and write down three pull reasons and three push reasons why so many immigrants came to America. The Statue of Liberty Source A is a poster in the USA in the 1930's. How useful is Source A as evidence of the experience of immigrants to the USA in the 1920s and 1930s? The Immigrant Experience Ellis Island "The Isle of Tears." All immigrants were given numbers when they arrived and were taken to be 'processed and checked by doctors. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/immigration/tour/index.htm
PUSH FACTORS (out of Europe etc.) PULL FACTORS (The American Dream)

Unemployment/Depression Work/Booming Industry
Poverty Wealth
Hunger/Famine Food
Persecution/Torture Freedom/Peace
Slums Proper Housing
Despair Hope Why did the Immigrants come to America? 'An Open door poilcy' The American government adopted an ‘Open Door’ policy on immigration which allowed almost anyone from anywhere in the world to settle in the USA. Why were some areas given nicknames such Little Italy? Questions - Paired Work Identify the four main cities where immigrants settled. Describe the living conditions for most immigrants. Why did immigrants choose to live in slum areas? Copy out the table into your jotter and answer the following questions underneath. What happened to America’s population as a result of immigration? Where did Immigrants come from? 2. Using the information on page 16 shade in the top 4 countries with the most immigration between 1851-1890 with the same colour. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnmKpdfk9uA Free at Last? Race Realtions in the USA 1918-1968 What will we learn? Immigration into America Changing Attitudes to Immigration Civil Rights Violent & Non-Violent Protests Section 1: Section 2: Section 3: Section 4: Who came to America How did immigration affect the USA Immigrant tensions How were blacks treated in 1920's White terror, black fear - KKK Great Migration North Civil Rights Movement Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955 Martin Luther King Civil Rights Act 1964 Black Power Death of MLK Attraction to the USA 3. Choose a different colour and do the same for the period between 1891-1920. Task Copy out the correct sentences underneath your map Immigrants to America between 1851 -1900 were from Northern Europen countries such as Britain, Ireland & Germany. These were known as old immigrants. Between 1851 and 1920 most immigrants came from Britain. Between 1900 and 1920 most immigrants came from central and southern Europe from countries such as Italy, Austria & Russia. These were known as new immigrants. Between 1900 and 1920 many immigrants came from South American countries such as Brazil and Chile. 1. Collect a map from Mr Farrell. 1. How much did the population rise between 1870 and 1920? 2. Why do we see such a massive increase in population? 3. Between what years do we see the biggest number of immigrants in the USA? Melting pot Salad Bowl V The melting pot comes from USA President Woodrow Wilson who believed that people of all different cultures came together in the USA. The Salad bowl was used to describe an America in which many immigrants tried to keep their old cultures alive so that they were American but still had their roots in their old countries. Immigrant Tensions Old & New Immigrants New immigrants came flooding in from Southern & Easten Europe and from Asia. Old immigrants thought they were important because they had money and their ancestors jad arrived in America a long time ago. They hated 'new immigrants' who had just arrived in America and were poor. Old immigrants were nicknamed WASPs which means White, Anglo-Saxon, and Protestant. Old immigrants mostly came from countries such as Britain, Germany & Ireland. Most new immigrants could not speak English so stayed near friends and relatives. Many kept themselves to themselves and did not mix. To the outisders they looked strange and 'not American.' Medical inspections were compulsary for all immigrants. From 1892, immigrants were taken to Ellis Island New York harbour before they were allowed in the country. Ellis Island Experience Arrival One of the first things they saw was the Statue of Liberty, which has stood on its own island in the harbor since 1886. People would cheer when they spotted this famous symbol of America. Some would weep with joy as the ship passed by it. First steps off the boat... The immigration process began on the winding stairs that led to the Registry Room. Doctors stood on the second floor and watched each person. They looked for people who had trouble walking or breathing or showed signs of other health problems. People with the disease were often sent back to their home countries. The Registry Room The waiting area in the Great Hall had long metal rails that helped maintain an orderly line as people went through the medical and legal inspections. Officials in the Great Hall decided whether each person could enter the country right away or whether that person's case required further review. The Medical Exam The doctors at Ellis Island inspected hundreds of thousands of people every month. They conducted a six second physical in order to declare fit or unfit to enter the country. Immigrants were marked with chalk and given an identifying letter. The Legal Inspection One by one, the passengers were called forward to speak with a uniformed inspector seated on a tall stool behind a high desk. Interpreters helped the immigrants communicate. Twenty-nine questions were asked of every immigrant. An immigrant could be detained for further inquiry if his or her answers differed from the answers listed on the manifest. For most people, Ellis Island was the "Isle of Hope." But for the unfortunate few who failed the health or legal inspections, it was the "Isle of Tears.” Legal detainees lived in a dormitory room on the third floor. They might wait a few days or even a month. Then their case would be reviewed in the Hearing Room. Detainees Immigrants & Slums American Dream - Myth or Reality? The reality of life in America was often a shock to new arrivals. As one Italian immigrant said having been led to believe the streets were paved with gold,

‘First the streets weren’t paved with gold, second they weren’t paved at all, and third I was expected to pave them.’ Immigrant Problems Language Barriers - Many could not read or write or speak English. Poor housing - City slums became overcrowded and rife with disease. Immigrants tended to stick togther for safety and comfort. Religious tension -Catholics & Jews suffered abuse and discrimination. Racial Tensions - Old immigrants, Blacks, Orientals, Mexicans and Red Indians suffered from prejudice and racism. Poverty - Many immigrants came with nothing but the clothes on their backs. We created this nation by our sweat & blood. We made this country a protestant nation. We came from countries in Europe that shared an Anglo Saxon tradition of hard work. Now we must suffer the arrivial of dirty, unwashed crowds from lazier countries. Power in America should be in the hands of the 'WASP' people who made it great. Source A Source A is from a letter to the Boston News in 1910. How does Source A show that new immigrants met prejudice from the older WASP families in America? Immigrants had to deal with many problems as they climbed towards the American Dream "When we reached the dock we were glad we were off the boat! We were smelly and we needed a bath. We had to be examined and my children were taken away from me. When they checked my eyes, I didn't want to cry, but there were tears in them. I was wondering if I would get into America. When they told me I could enter I went looking for my children. Then I saw my husband and went running towards him. I was crying and when I reached him I saw my children were with him. We were so happy to see each other and we cried together." An immigrants experience of Ellis Island Source A tells us that many WASPs felt they had created America. They believed that they through had work had made America strong. They said that new immigrants were dirty, lazy and unwelcome. Problems such as: Immigrants were given chalk markings if they had anything wrong with them. 1. How does this source highlight the problems of the American Dream? What do you see in this picture? Using pages 12 & 13 of the textbook answer these questions in full sentences. Create a storybook of an immigrants experience at Ellis Island. Many were sent home if they failed to pass these inspections. Most new __________ lived in the growing cities. The flood of immigrants looking for ______ and ______ meant that cities grew quickly. There was little ______ over the buildings or conditions. As a result, ______ increased in many inner city areas across America. Slums became __________ and disease and crime became a common experience. immigrants homes work control slums dedovrecorw
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