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Transcript of PETROLUEM
Tuesday, March 18th, 2014
Vol XCIII, No. 311
Where does Petroleum come from?
What is petroleum?
Finding and Extracting Oil
Where does Petroleum go? How is it refined?
Petroleum is reached by drilling into the earth's surface.
are built to dig into the earth.
Its valves are used to turn the flow of oil on and off and to adjust the speed at witch the oil comes out.
Oil can also be found under the ocean floor
Petroleum is found all over the world
- (aka "Christmas tree") Tall towers built with drills and valves to find petroleum in the earth. Can be found of floating platforms in the water or on land.
It is a combination of two elements, carbon and hydrogen, found in crude oil, natural gas, and coal. Hydrocarbons are used as fuels, solvents, and raw materials for numerous products such as dyes, pesticides, and plastics.
Petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons.
Fossil fuels were formed by prehistoric plants and animals. After the organisms die, layers of sand, clay, and dirt covered the remains. The pressure caused the remains to pack down tight and store energy for millions of years.
these remains turned into:
coal, oil (petroleum), and natural gas
After collected by the oil rigs, the oil is transported all over the world.
Oil tankers transport oil across seas, while underground pipes transport it across countries
mining & drilling
What is it???
The oil is heated at high temperatures until turns to vapor
as the vapor develops it passes through a tall cooling tower
As they cool, the crude vapors condense, or turn back into a liquid, and are now called distillates
After distillation the crude oil is now: straight run gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, and deisel fuel
The portion of crude left after distillation is called heavy bottoms; it can be refined into gas oil, lubricating oil, and asphalt
This is a picture of the cycle crude oil must go through to be refined
What is Shale/Fracking?
Millions of gallons of water, sand, and chemicals are pumped underground to break apart the rock and release the gas.
Fracking has resulted in many oil and gas wells attaining a state of economic viability due to the level of extraction that can be reached.
Petroleum creates pollution at every stage. From mining, to recovery, transporting, and using as fuel all creates pollution. The drilling process, creates pollution from oil spills. When refining crude oil, it releases chemical pollutants into the environment. Chemicals also leak from refineries into the soil, air, and groundwater causing breakages and fires, which creates more pollution.
Is Petroleum good for the environment???
Advantages of petroleum:
Will not break down in high heats, making it useful for lubricants and grease.
Petroleum has created advance technology and many new products which has changed our lives for the better.
oil refining produces the worlds supply of elemental sulfur and byproduct, used for many industrial applications
Petroleum plays a big part in the energy we need today
Produces many products that are used in our everyday lives
Disadvantages of petroleum:
creates a lot of pollution in the water and air
Difficult to find and extract from the ground
Takes many steps to refine and transport
nonrenewable, it takes millions of years to form
An estimate of the amount of crude oil located in a particular economic region. You cannot have an oil reserve in a location where the oil is unable to be reached or extracted.
For example, if oil is too deep in the earth, that it is unreachable, then it would not be considered part of the nations reserve.
How is electricity produces from petroleum???
oil is burned to heat water, to generate steam, which creates electricity
oil is burned under pressure to create hot exhaust gases which spin a turbine, producing electricity
combine cycle technology:
oil is first combusted in a combustion turbine, using the heated exhaust gases to create electricity. After these exhaust gases are recovered, they heat water in a boiler creating steam that generates a 2nd turbine.
Fun Facts/petroleum products used in everyday life:
The US uses the most petroleum out of every other country, which is 22 million barrels daily.
Petroleum has been used for over 5000 years, ancient Babylonians and Sumerians used crude oil.
25% of crude oil is comprised of gasoline.
Crude oil is sweet if is contains less sulphur and sour if it contains more .
Crude oil can be extremely watery, to nearly a soild.
Petroleum is a fossil fuel that is often called crude oil or oil.
petroleum varies from heavy, dense and dark black to light, thin, and clear yellow