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Copy of Strategies for Explicating In-Text Citations
Transcript of Copy of Strategies for Explicating In-Text Citations
Overview of P-I-E Body Paragraphs
Thesis (your argument)
Quotation with context and signal phrase
a. Synthesize quote
b. Connect/defend quotation
c. Expand on quotation
After the "quotation" (and eventually in-text citation), you will need to explain in order to give the quotation significance. An effective model of explanation follows these three successive steps:
1. Write your topic sentence. Your topic should not be self-evident; it should rely on illustration and explanation to be understandable to your audience.
2. Find a quotation that supports the point being made in your topic sentence. Think of the quotation as textual evidence for your topic sentence.
3. Transition from topic to a quotation:
a. Where does the quotation come from? i.e., Who is the author? What is the source?
b. Integrate into the body paragraph using a signal phrase (usually an independent clause that introduces the language of the quotation).
c. Use quotation marks on the outside of language taken directly from your source.
1. Synthesize the quote in your own words. Assume your reader speaks a different language from the quoted material; translate it.
Objectively state what the quotation means.
2. Now that the quotation is understandable,
defend the quote's inclusion by relating it to your topic sentence
(transparent logic). Prove its worthiness.
3. Now that you've made the connection for your audience, think of a way to
make this connection further advance the larger thesis
as you prepare to transition into another body paragraph. This will help maintain the essay's momentum.
Example - Article Analysis
In the Washington Post's Article, "Shutdown Blame Game", Gold uses bias language in her depiction of political debates regarding the recent government shutdown.
In the article, the author begins by explaining how Republicans "started the day arguing" and that "Democrats were to blame".
Here, Gold has expressed how Republicans remain in a heated debate over who is at fault for the closing of the federal government.
The idea that Republicans would need to "argue" suggests that they have a reason for defending themselves, ultimately causing them to appear guilty.
This evidence of bias against Conservatives suggests an effort on the part of Gold to condemn Republicans for the recent government shutdown.
Point - Topic sentence
Illustration - quotation with signal phrase
Synthesize - Explain the quote in your own words
Defend/connect - Relate synthesis to thesis sentence
Expand on defense/connection to advance thesis.