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# The Differentiated Classroom

Final Project for Edu 610: Differentiated Theory

by

Tweet## Carrie Anheliger

on 14 April 2013#### Transcript of The Differentiated Classroom

Technology Assessment Teaching Techniques The Differentiated Classroom Carrie Anheliger - EDU 610 What

Is/Isn't

Differentiation? Why

Should

You

Differentiate? How

Do

You

Differentiate? Assessment

BEFORE

Learning Differentiation Assessment

DURING

Learning Assessment

AFTER

Learning Teaching

by

READINESS Teaching

by

INTEREST Teaching

by

LEARNER

PROFILE Assessment

with

Technology Differentiation with Technology The

Flipped

Classroom "At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means "shaking up" what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 1) Differentiation is NOT

"Individualized Instruction" Teachers cannot plan something different for each of their 30 + students in the classroom. This tends to lead to teacher exhaustion and fragmented learning. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiation is NOT chaotic Differentiating instruction does not lead to losing control of student behavior. Teachers must guide students in how to move from activity to activity effectively, and the proper behavior at each activity. Student movement and talking is necessary but controlled. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiation is NOT Another Way to

Provide Homogeneous Grouping. Gone are the days of the cardinal, bluebird, and buzzard grouping. Typically these types of groupings left a student in that group for an entire year. Differentiated instruction focuses on FLEXIBLE grouping, based on a students areas of strengths and weaknesses (Tomlinson, 2004). Differentiation is NOT just "tailoring the same suit of clothes" Asking questions on the same topic that are harder for more advanced students, and easier for struggling students is not true differentiation. This may not provide enough of a challenge for advanced learners, and struggling learners may miss information that is needed. Differentiation is PROACTIVE Differentiation is ROOTED IN ASSESSMENT Differentiation is QUALITATIVE Differentiation provides

MULTIPLE APPROACHES Differentiation is STUDENT CENTERED Differentiation is a BLEND of instruction Differentiation is ORGANIC Create an Environment for Differentiation Get to "Know the Learner" Learn to Manage the Classroom Prepare the Students and Parents A Teacher's View on Why They Differentiate Classrooms Have Different Ability Levels Students Have Different Learning Styles Students Have Baggage Students Have Different Ethnic and Cultural Backgrounds Students Have Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds It is assumed that all learners have different needs in the classroom. Because of this, the teacher plans a variety of ways to allow students to learn and express their learning. With more learning experiences available, the teacher will not have to react less to plans that did not work. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiation is not giving more work to students that are successful and less work to students that are struggling. Adjusting the number of assignments a student completes is LESS EFFECTIVE than adjusting the type of assignment the student completes. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiated instruction uses knowledge of students from all facets, including formative assessment. Gone are the days where assessment only takes place at the end of the unit. Assessment should be ongoing, and help the teacher design lessons so that all students are successful. (Tomlinson, 2004) Content, Process, and Product are three curricular elements that can be differentiated. A student must be offered different approaches on what they learn, how they learn it, and how they show what they have learned. (Tomlinson, 2004) Flexible groupings of whole class, group, and individual instruction is imperative for differentiation. A blend of these groupings provides the best learning experience for students. (Tomlinson, 2004) Students are not the only ones learning in a differentiated classroom. The teacher is also learning as they go, about how their students learn and making adjustments as necessary. (Tomlinson, 2004) In any classroom you will have some students below grade level, some at grade level, and some above grade level. Who falls into which category can depend on the topic being learned.

One way to differentiate for different ability levels is to use an Adjustable Assignment Model, where students work on mastering skills at their level before moving on to the next level. (Chapman & King, 2012) Howard Gardner proposed individuals have multiple intelligences in his book "Frames of Mind".

They are:

Logical - Mathematical

Spatial

Linguistic

Bodily - Kinesthetic

Musical

Interpersonal

Intrapersonal

Naturalistic

Teachers must keep these intelligences in mind when designing lessons and assessments, as students will be more successful using the intelligences they are most talented in. (Wikepedia) What a student experiences at home can be very different than what a teacher envisions. They could be dealing with abuse, neglect, divorce, etc. (Mastrodomenico, 2010)

By differentiating instruction, we can allow students to make choices. "Making a choice on an activity might mean that the student can acquire a sense of power in themselves they might not otherwise feel" (Mastrodomenico, 2010) In some areas, teachers do not come from the ethnic or cultural background their students do. Different cultures and ethnicity's stress different things that are important in education, just like different classes. (Mastrodomenico, 2010). We must keep in mind as teachers to differentiate our lessons so that all students can experience success. We must try to bridge the gaps in knowledge that are a result of socioeconomic status.

Richard Rothstein identifies 4 main gaps that cause differences in student readiness:

- Reading Gap

- Conversation Gap

- Role Model Gap

- Health and Housing Gap (Rothstein) The classroom should:

Make everyone feel welcome

Breed mutual respect

Provide a sense of safety

Encourage growth

Set a standard for success

Be fair

Value the students opinion (Tomlinson, 2004) "Effective teachers know it is worth their time to gather as much information as possible about each student and not assume anything" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 39)

Teachers should make every effort to know their students learning style, intelligences, personalities, knowledge base, and interests to help them design lessons and assessments that will breed student success (Chapman & King, 2012) "Although managing a differentiated classroom is not always easy, progress in that direction tends to make school a better fit for more students" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 32)

Some tips to manage a differentiated classroom:

Differentiate at a pace you are comfortable with

Time differentiated activities

Create and deliver instructions carefully

Teach students how to access help, minimize noise, and rearrange the classroom for different activities

Promote on-task behavior

Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 33 - 38) A differentiated classroom looks a lot different than a traditional classroom. Students must be introduced to the idea of differentiation and the procedures used to differentiate. This can often be done by having conversations with the class about things like when they learned to walk and talk, or self-assess themselves on different learning outcomes. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Parents can be educated about differentiation through newsletters, and parent information nights. They should be presented with what differentiation is, why it is useful, and how it is going to be used in the classroom. Why Assess Before Learning? Differentiated Assessment "Preassessment is an essential prerequisite for effective diagnosis and planning" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 69)

Strong preassessments reveal the following about the individual student:

Knowledge base and background experiences related to the standard or skill

Attitudes, likes, and dislikes

Feelings and emotions

Interests and talents

Strengths and weaknesses

Entry point for new information (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 70

With preassessment, teachers can plan their lessons so that they are meaningful for their students, and provide all students with a challenge. The Process of PreAssessment "1: Thoroughly examine vital parts of the upcoming lesson or unit

2: Identify the target standards, skills, and concepts

3: Select the most efficient assessment tool to pinpoint each individual's knowledge before the learning

4: Administer the preassessment before planning

5: Gather and interpret the data

6: Use the data to differentiate instructional plans" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 70) Signal and Action Responses Take a Stand Knowledge Base Corners Personal Surveys and Inventories Pretest This formative assessment tool is a quick way to determine what each students knowledge base level is. After introducing a new topic to the class students will choose an action suggested by the teacher to indicate their level (Chapman & King, 2012).

Ex. When introducing long division with polynomials, ask students if they remember long division with numbers.

Thumbs up --> I remember how to do long division.

Wiggle hands --> I kind of remember how to do long division.

Thumbs down --> I don't remember how to do long division. This formative assessment technique has students choose their level of knowledge base based on the number options provided by the teacher. Students who choose each number then move to the designated area of the classroom and discuss what they know on chart paper. This formative assessment can help reveal misconceptions about topics. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example:

When introducing factoring quadratics with polynomials have students rate their knowledge of factoring from 1 - 4 with 4 being an expert level.

After students write down their level, they can travel to that section of the room and discuss what they do remember about factoring.

Level 1 might remember greatest common factors, Level 2 might remember factoring by inspection, Level 3 might remember factoring by decomposition, and Level 4 might remember difference of squares and perfect square trinomials. This formative assessment tool is used to reveal students knowledge on particular concepts. This tool should be practiced with with topics like hobbies or sports first, before preassessing upcoming content. It should be reiterated several times with the class that it is okay to choose any corner, because they all offer opportunities to learn. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example: When getting ready to introduce the topic of radical functions with variables have students choose one of the four corners about their knowledge of radical functions with numbers

Not a clue!

I know a little bit!

I know a lot!

I've got it!

Students from each group can brainstorm what they do remember and present their findings to the class. This formative assessment tool "reveals the learner's interests, emotions, feelings, likes, dislikes, dreams and goals" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 78) This knowledge can be used to help plan projects or assessments that students will find engaging and motivating.

Example) After performing this preassessment you find that many students in your class like baseball, basketball, and football. You can then design a project when learning about quadratic equations that have students plot the trajectory of a ball, and create a quadratic equation that predicts where the ball will be in the air at certain times. Pretests provide a comprehensive picture of what students background knowledge is. Pretests must be designed carefully. The following is a list of things to keep in mind when planning a pretest:

Nobody should be able to achieve 0 or 100

The pretest should address the various levels of learners

Easy and difficult questions should be mixed up so students don't get discouraged after several hard questions in a row

Manipulatives should be included

Items should range from concrete to abstract and from simple to complex

The pretest can be used as a post test to show student growth (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 81) Know it! Show it! Response Cards Checkpoint Tests & Daily Grades Why use Formative Assessment During the Learning Process? Observation and Anecdotal Assessment Effective Questioning Rubrics Checklists Performance Assessment Teacher Made Tests Assessment After Learning Teaching by Readiness, Interest, & Learner Profile The Equalizer Foundational to Transformational Concrete to Abstract Simple to Complex Single Facet to Multiple Facets Small Leap to Great Leap More Structured to More Open - Ended Less Independence to Greater Independence Slow to Fast Interest Centers or Groups Real - Life Applications of Ideas and Skills Jigsaws WebQuests Design - A - Day Group Orientation Cognitive Style Learning Environment Intelligence Preference Assessment DURING Learning Assessment AFTER Learning Assessment BEFORE Learning Instructional Interactives GeoGebra Desmos Inspiration Wiki's and Blogs Khan Academy Real - World Applications http://www.yummymath.com/

http://realteachingmeansreallearning.blogspot.ca/p/open-ended-math-projects-and-lessons.html What is a Flipped Classroom? "Ongoing formative assessment during the learning experience keeps the learner on track and drives instructional planning" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 83)

Formative assessment can assist teachers with:

knowing when to reteach or enrich lessons

adjusting assignments

providing interventions and assistance

planning for a variety of instruction strategies (Chapman & King, 2012) Observation is an assessment tool that provides a teacher data on a students progress, strengths and weaknesses, behavior patterns, and appropriate resources to promote success (Chapman & King, 2012).

Anecdotal Assessment can help guide teacher observations, and provide a way to document observations made. Anecdotal assessment should be organized in a way that best fits a teachers needs such as index cards, or post - it notes.

When using observation and anecdotal assessment make sure you are record the date, and that your comments are clear, concise, and and not subjective (Chapman & King, 2012). "Know it! Show it! provides students with opportunities to process learning in different ways" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 86).

In conjunction with a choice board, students can select which method of showing what they know that fits their learning modality best. Some examples are: illustrate it, create an example, put it to a beat, demonstrate it with a manipulative, or tell a step - by - step procedure (Chapman & King, 2012).

Example) When completing the square in a mathematics classroom, you can do a check to see how much students understand by using Show it! Know it!

Students can choose to demonstrate their knowledge on completing the square by writing a step - by - step procedure, using algebra tiles, creating a song on the steps needed to complete this procedure, or they could complete an example. Response cards are a quick way of evaluating whether students understand a concept of not. The cards are double sided and can contain 2, 3, or even 4 different responses. When a teacher asks the class a questions they put their thumb on the response they have chosen on their side of the card and their pointer finger on the response they have chosen on the teachers side of the card. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) When teaching order of operations students can have response cards with the words: Parentheses, Exponents, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

When working on an example at the board, the teacher can ask the students which operation comes next in the problem. If students choose the correct operation they likely understand order of operations. If they do not, they will need more instruction. "Use periodic checkpoint tests after reading an important section of the text, after demonstrating a skill, following an introduction of a new procedure, process, or sequence, or presenting a learning segment or important facts needing a quick assessment" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 92)

Daily grades can be gathered from pop quizzes, homework challenges, assignments, projects, etc. They give a clear picture on an individual students progress in a class. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) A checkpoint test could be used after teaching students the laws of exponents to make sure students have a clear understanding of all of the rules. "Assessing after the learning traditionally has been viewed as a way to analyze the student's mastery of the standards. Post - assessments are crucial because the results are analyzed to see if the learn has reached the initial goals. If the goals have not been reached, specific plans are customized for the individual" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 93)

There are many different types of formative assessment that can be used in the classroom. It is important to remember that if students have not mastered concepts, a plan should be put in place to help that mastery take place. Open - ended questions allows students to answer questions in detail, and explain their thoughts. If students can explain their process in detail, they have a clear understanding about the topic. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Reflective questions allow students to self - assess why they have the knowledge that they do, and how they can improve in the future. (Chapman & King, 2012) Rubrics are often used in conjunction with projects. They allow students, parents, and teachers a clear picture of exactly what is expected for each task. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) Students are given the task to design a floorplan for a house using different shapes studied in class. They must calculate the area of each room, and the perimeter of each room. They must convert all their metric calculations into imperial. Students could be graded out of 4 on the following categories:

Number of shapes included that were studied in class

Proper calculations for area

Proper calculations for perimeter

Proper conversion of units "Checklists itemize standards, skills, or behaviors to observe or monitor for a specific purpose" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 104)

Checklists should contain observable, clear, specific items, include space for comments, use an easy - to - score format, space for the student name and date, and focus on quality items rather than quantity (Chapman & King, 2012) Performance assessments "give students opportunities to show what they know in creative ways" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 114)

This allows students to choose ways to show what they know, that best fit their learning profile. Students can choose to:

Show it musically

Explain it

Demonstrate it

Write it

Show it visually (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) Students could choose to show their understanding of volume of shapes by describing a step - by - step process to calculate it, demonstrating it with manipulatives that can be filled with water or sand, or by creating a poster. Teacher made tests are the most common type of summative assessment. Teachers should be cautious to make sure their tests show what students know, appropriate time is allowed, covers the content that needs to assessed, and uses many types of questioning formats depending on what is being assessed (Chapman & King, 2012).

Types of formats:

True/False

Multiple Choice

Numerical Response

Fill in the Blank

Open - Ended Questions

Problem - Based Assessment

Skills Tests

Performance Tests When ideas are new to students, they often need basic tasks and instructions to build a foundation of knowledge. When students already know information about a topic, they may need information that bends the idea and shows how it interacts with other ideas. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When students are learning surface area they may need to calculate surface area of simple shapes, while others may need to calculate surface area of more complex shapes, like buildings. Students need to become familiar with information or skills (concrete) before they can look at applications of that skill (abstract). (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Students must be able to successfully find first derivatives and second derivatives (concrete), before they can work on applications of derivatives like velocity and acceleration (abstract). Some students need to focus on the "big picture", without many details. Other students may be ready for one or multiple abstractions. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When learning permutations some students will need to focus on how to calculate simple permutations, while other students will understand this and can study permutations with one or many restrictions. Some students are working to the best of their ability will simple, few-step problems. Other students have the ability to work on multi-step problems and relate what they are learning to other subjects. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) In Calculus some students will only be able to find derivatives using chain rule, while other students will be able to do derivatives that use chain rule, product rule and quotient rule. Some students will be able to apply concepts learned in class to simple applications, while other students will be able to apply it to complex applications or even further. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Learning how to measure area and applying it by estimating the area of a hamster's house compared to a teachers desk vs. estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed for a building and the cost of the materials (Tomlinson, 2004) Some students need steps laid out for them that do not involve many decisions, while other students have the capability to be more creative (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When finding a formula to represent a pattern some students will need to have the pattern provided and prompts to fill in tables, graphs etc. Other students will be able to find their own pattern and come up with a formula without assistance. Students develop independence in four stages: skill building, structured independence, shared independence, and self - guided independence (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When students are completing mathematical research in structured independence the topic might be provided by the teacher, along with set due dates for each part that needs to be completed. In self-guided independence, the student will select their own topic and decide what components to research, only checking in with the teacher when needed. Students who struggle with the concept being presented will need to spend more time on it, while other students will be able to more quickly through the content in order to stay engaged and motivated (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Some students will need to spend several days learning how to multiply binomials with manipulatives, grids, and by distribution, while other students will move through all three stages quickly and be ready to move onto factoring. "Interest centers...and interest groups...can provide enrichment for student who demonstrate mastery/competence with required work and can be a vehicle for providing these students with meaningful study when required assignments are completed" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 100) Example) Students can explore real-life applications of graphs in economics such as profit, or real-life applications of statistics such as chance of winning the lottery. Real-life applications of ideas and skills can give relevance to what students are learning. If the real-life application is something that is of interest to the student, the project will be more motivating and engaging.

Ex) Students can research the usefulness of fractions and decimals in a career they are interested in (Tomlinson, 2004) This is a cooperative learning strategy that has students study one facet of a topic they can choose from a list. The students learn about this topic and meet with other students have learned about this topic to get as much information as possible. They will then go back to their home group and each student will present the information they found on their topic (Tomlinson, 2004).

Example) Students are learning about trigonometry. In a jigsaw, students are able to choose from the following list of things to study: history of trigonometry, applications of trigonometry, how to solve for unknown angles, and how to solve for unknown sides. "The WebQuest is a teacher - designed Internet lesson developed with specific learning goals in mind, some specified and relevant Internet links, and guidelines that support students in the research or finding out process...WebQuests can easily be differentiated...by student interest (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 58-59)

Example: The following is a WebQuest on using Mathematics to Determine Climate

http://www.mathgoodies.com/webquests/climate/ The object of design-a-day is to have students choose what they want to work on during a class period, set goals and time lines, and work towards them. Students can choose a topic that interests them, or a project they may have seen another class do. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Some students decide to create a rollercoaster and measure it's slope in different areas while other students choose to measure the slope of stairwells and wheelchair ramps around the school. Some students work best independently, some students work best in small groups, and other students work best in a large group. Teachers should allow opportunities for all three configurations to occur throughout the unit so that all students have an opportunity to work in the group orientation that best suits them. Some students thrive when there is noise, while others need peace and quiet. Some students prefer to sit still, while others need to be mobile. The classroom should be designed to support all types of learners.

Some suggestions to achieve different learning environments are:

- having dividers so that students can complete work independently

- having high tables with no chairs so students can stand and be mobile while working

- allowing students to listen to music with headphones if they need noise Every student has a preferred method of learning. While it would be very time consuming to teach each concept eight different ways, teachers should keep in mind the 8 multiple intelligences when designing their lessons and assessments. Throughout the course of a unit all preferred methods of learning should be utilized in at least one lesson or activity. When assessing, allow students choice so they can pick an assignment that is more in line with their preferred learning style. There are many different cognitive styles that students can have. Teachers must take care to provide many activities in the classroom that utilize different cognitive styles so students can be successful.

Examples

Collaboration vs. Competition: Some activities should be group orientated and promote collaboration, while other activities can focus on competition such as timed events or review games like Jeopardy.

Oral/Visual/Kinesthetic: Sometimes lessons can be presented orally with a lecture, visually with a movie or diagram, or kinesthetically with manipulatives.

Easily Distracted/Long Attention Span: Activities an be designed so that students with long attention spans can continue working, while students who are easily distracted are allowed breaks, or can work on a series of short activities. GeoGebra is a free software package that can allow students to explore mathematical concepts visually.

Example) Students can explore trigonometry with the following three GeoGebra lessons:

Desmos is a free online calculator, that allows students to explore graphs visually to discover for themselves what effect different parameters of functions have on a graph. Inspiration is a software program that allows students to create graphic organizers, concept maps, mind maps, webs, outlines, plots and graphs.

This can help students organize their notes, assignments, see concepts visually, create connections, etc. Wiki's and Blogs can be set up within classrooms as a portal for students to access materials, converse with other students, etc. Teachers can post due dates, content, lessons, videos, and links.

Wiki's and Blogs can increase classroom communication, and provide resources for students to access further information. This is the "use of multimedia for instruction rather than as instruction" (Hubbell et.al, 2012, p. 142) A great mathematical example of this is online manipulatives. This can allow students to explore concepts kinesthetically. Real - world applications makes learning more engaging and motivating. The following are some websites that provide real - world applications of Mathematics. Assessment with Technology One way to competed assessment during learning is through the use of eclickers. There are many different types of software available that can be used.

Socrative is just one example of software designed to quiz students in class, which provides immediate feedback. Socrative can be used in - class or as an exit slip to get an idea of what students know or do not know.

http://www.socrative.com/

Smart Response is another version of eclickers. This technology needs to be purchased and can be integrated into SmartBoard presentations. Information collected can be put into charts and graphs.

http://smarttech.com/response

WebQuests are a great way to assess students summatively. Not only can they be differentiated by interest, they can be differentiated by readiness as well. There are many WebQuests already premade that you can use and edit, or you can make your own.

Performance Assessments can also be completed with technology. Students can create ePortfolios, or how - to videos on concepts they have learned. Assessment Before Learning can be done with surveys. Why not make these survey's digital and engaging?

Survey Monkey can be used to learn how much a student knows about a topic. You can take students responses and make them into charts and graphs.

http://www.surveymonkey.com/

Poll Everywhere is another online tool that an be used to collect student feedback. With this software, students are able to submit their answers with their cell phones via text messaging, or online with a computer.

http://www.polleverywhere.com/ Technology can be used in many ways in the classroom, even with assessment.

The following are just a few ideas on how to use technology for assessment BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER learning. "The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Short video lectures are viewed by students at home before the class session, while in-class time is devoted to exercises, projects, or discussions." ("7 things you", 2012) Khan Academy offers online Mathematical Videos (among other topics), that teach students different concepts or lessons. This website is often used in conjunction with a flipped classroom model.

Even if you are not using the flipped classroom model, links from Khan Academy could be posted to a classroom wiki, blog or webpage for students to view. This would provide visual and auditory learners another resource. In addition, if students miss class, they would be able to catch up on what they missed at home. Teachers must keep in mind that not all students have the same background knowledge. Learning must be interesting, engaging, and relevant for students in order to keep them motivated to learn. In a differentiated classroom, students take more responsibility for their learning because they have a vested interest in what outcomes they accomplishing. (Tomlinson, 2004) Slope = Rise/Run (Tomlinson, 2012) (Hogen) ("Can you help me", 2012) ("Northern cardinal") ("Buzzard") ("Bluebird") ("Suits that fit bad too big too small") ("Pre-planning") (Henderson, 2011) ("Assessment cycle") ("Content, process, product") ("Student centered learning", 2010) ("Whole class instruction") ("Organic", 2010) (Hume, 2010) ("Frames of mind") (2011) ("Ethnic cartoon") (2012) (Tomlinson, 2012) ("The equalizer") ("Concrete, representational, abstract") ("Difference", 2009) ("The national lottery") ("Max profit") ("Jigsaw puzzle in four colours") (Glosser, 2013) ("Rollercoaster") ("Whole class instruction") ("Working while standing") ("DJ headphones") ("Multiple intelligences", 2008) (Hopeinschools, 2011) ("Yes no maybe") ("Radical") ("Parabolic trajectory") ("Anecdotal observation record") ("PEDMAS") ("Questions and answers signpost", 2011) ("Checklist cartoon") Why Would You Flip Your Classroom? (Learning4mastery, 2010) Does it Work? Many schools that have implemented the flipped classroom have seen remarkable success. It has been "report[ed] that prior to facilitating the flip at Clintondale High School in Michigan, more than 50% of freshman students failed English and 44% failed math. With the flipped classroom in place, the number of freshman students failing English dropped to 19%, with only 13% failing math" (Da Silva, 2013) How Does a Flipped Classroom Allow Differentiation? Because lessons are viewed outside of the classroom, more time is freed up in the classroom to work on projects, assignments, groupwork, and higher-level thinking.

Students will be able to identify what they don't understand from the video, and seek help from their teacher, while students who do understand can choose what activity they want to work on. http://www.khanacademy.org/ Differentiation with Technology Many of the differentiation techniques discussed in this presentation can be accomplished using technology. It allows students to access lessons orally, visually, and kinesthetically. It can promote individual work, or group work. Technology can increase communication in a classroom.

The following are a list of ways Technology can be used. http://www.teachmaths-inthinking.co.uk/files/teachmaths/files/Geometry/discovering%20ratios%20in%20rt%20angled%20triangles/discovering_ratios_rightangled_triangles.pdf

http://www.teachmaths-inthinking.co.uk/files/teachmaths/files/Geometry/discovering%20ratios%20in%20rt%20angled%20triangles/opp%20hyp.html

http://www.teachmaths-inthinking.co.uk/files/teachmaths/files/Geometry/discovering%20ratios%20in%20rt%20angled%20triangles/cosine%20and%20tangent.html Example) Students can graph a list of quadratic functions changing parameters "a", "b", "h", and "k" to self - discover how each parameter effects the graph. https://www.desmos.com/ http://www.inspiration.com/ (Gough) http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html Other Websites that Use Technology The following two websites have many different ideas for using technology for differentiation. Not only do they have links to many Web 2.0 Tools, they provide instruction on how to use these tools effectively. http://kathyschrock.net/ http://kuglinlive.wikispaces.com/Home Top 10 Reasons to Use Technology in the Classroom (Amplivoxsound, 2011) ("Survey monkey", 2013) ("Poll everywhere") ("Base ten blocks", 2010)

Full transcriptIs/Isn't

Differentiation? Why

Should

You

Differentiate? How

Do

You

Differentiate? Assessment

BEFORE

Learning Differentiation Assessment

DURING

Learning Assessment

AFTER

Learning Teaching

by

READINESS Teaching

by

INTEREST Teaching

by

LEARNER

PROFILE Assessment

with

Technology Differentiation with Technology The

Flipped

Classroom "At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means "shaking up" what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 1) Differentiation is NOT

"Individualized Instruction" Teachers cannot plan something different for each of their 30 + students in the classroom. This tends to lead to teacher exhaustion and fragmented learning. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiation is NOT chaotic Differentiating instruction does not lead to losing control of student behavior. Teachers must guide students in how to move from activity to activity effectively, and the proper behavior at each activity. Student movement and talking is necessary but controlled. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiation is NOT Another Way to

Provide Homogeneous Grouping. Gone are the days of the cardinal, bluebird, and buzzard grouping. Typically these types of groupings left a student in that group for an entire year. Differentiated instruction focuses on FLEXIBLE grouping, based on a students areas of strengths and weaknesses (Tomlinson, 2004). Differentiation is NOT just "tailoring the same suit of clothes" Asking questions on the same topic that are harder for more advanced students, and easier for struggling students is not true differentiation. This may not provide enough of a challenge for advanced learners, and struggling learners may miss information that is needed. Differentiation is PROACTIVE Differentiation is ROOTED IN ASSESSMENT Differentiation is QUALITATIVE Differentiation provides

MULTIPLE APPROACHES Differentiation is STUDENT CENTERED Differentiation is a BLEND of instruction Differentiation is ORGANIC Create an Environment for Differentiation Get to "Know the Learner" Learn to Manage the Classroom Prepare the Students and Parents A Teacher's View on Why They Differentiate Classrooms Have Different Ability Levels Students Have Different Learning Styles Students Have Baggage Students Have Different Ethnic and Cultural Backgrounds Students Have Different Socioeconomic Backgrounds It is assumed that all learners have different needs in the classroom. Because of this, the teacher plans a variety of ways to allow students to learn and express their learning. With more learning experiences available, the teacher will not have to react less to plans that did not work. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiation is not giving more work to students that are successful and less work to students that are struggling. Adjusting the number of assignments a student completes is LESS EFFECTIVE than adjusting the type of assignment the student completes. (Tomlinson, 2004) Differentiated instruction uses knowledge of students from all facets, including formative assessment. Gone are the days where assessment only takes place at the end of the unit. Assessment should be ongoing, and help the teacher design lessons so that all students are successful. (Tomlinson, 2004) Content, Process, and Product are three curricular elements that can be differentiated. A student must be offered different approaches on what they learn, how they learn it, and how they show what they have learned. (Tomlinson, 2004) Flexible groupings of whole class, group, and individual instruction is imperative for differentiation. A blend of these groupings provides the best learning experience for students. (Tomlinson, 2004) Students are not the only ones learning in a differentiated classroom. The teacher is also learning as they go, about how their students learn and making adjustments as necessary. (Tomlinson, 2004) In any classroom you will have some students below grade level, some at grade level, and some above grade level. Who falls into which category can depend on the topic being learned.

One way to differentiate for different ability levels is to use an Adjustable Assignment Model, where students work on mastering skills at their level before moving on to the next level. (Chapman & King, 2012) Howard Gardner proposed individuals have multiple intelligences in his book "Frames of Mind".

They are:

Logical - Mathematical

Spatial

Linguistic

Bodily - Kinesthetic

Musical

Interpersonal

Intrapersonal

Naturalistic

Teachers must keep these intelligences in mind when designing lessons and assessments, as students will be more successful using the intelligences they are most talented in. (Wikepedia) What a student experiences at home can be very different than what a teacher envisions. They could be dealing with abuse, neglect, divorce, etc. (Mastrodomenico, 2010)

By differentiating instruction, we can allow students to make choices. "Making a choice on an activity might mean that the student can acquire a sense of power in themselves they might not otherwise feel" (Mastrodomenico, 2010) In some areas, teachers do not come from the ethnic or cultural background their students do. Different cultures and ethnicity's stress different things that are important in education, just like different classes. (Mastrodomenico, 2010). We must keep in mind as teachers to differentiate our lessons so that all students can experience success. We must try to bridge the gaps in knowledge that are a result of socioeconomic status.

Richard Rothstein identifies 4 main gaps that cause differences in student readiness:

- Reading Gap

- Conversation Gap

- Role Model Gap

- Health and Housing Gap (Rothstein) The classroom should:

Make everyone feel welcome

Breed mutual respect

Provide a sense of safety

Encourage growth

Set a standard for success

Be fair

Value the students opinion (Tomlinson, 2004) "Effective teachers know it is worth their time to gather as much information as possible about each student and not assume anything" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 39)

Teachers should make every effort to know their students learning style, intelligences, personalities, knowledge base, and interests to help them design lessons and assessments that will breed student success (Chapman & King, 2012) "Although managing a differentiated classroom is not always easy, progress in that direction tends to make school a better fit for more students" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 32)

Some tips to manage a differentiated classroom:

Differentiate at a pace you are comfortable with

Time differentiated activities

Create and deliver instructions carefully

Teach students how to access help, minimize noise, and rearrange the classroom for different activities

Promote on-task behavior

Encourage students to take responsibility for their own learning (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 33 - 38) A differentiated classroom looks a lot different than a traditional classroom. Students must be introduced to the idea of differentiation and the procedures used to differentiate. This can often be done by having conversations with the class about things like when they learned to walk and talk, or self-assess themselves on different learning outcomes. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Parents can be educated about differentiation through newsletters, and parent information nights. They should be presented with what differentiation is, why it is useful, and how it is going to be used in the classroom. Why Assess Before Learning? Differentiated Assessment "Preassessment is an essential prerequisite for effective diagnosis and planning" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 69)

Strong preassessments reveal the following about the individual student:

Knowledge base and background experiences related to the standard or skill

Attitudes, likes, and dislikes

Feelings and emotions

Interests and talents

Strengths and weaknesses

Entry point for new information (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 70

With preassessment, teachers can plan their lessons so that they are meaningful for their students, and provide all students with a challenge. The Process of PreAssessment "1: Thoroughly examine vital parts of the upcoming lesson or unit

2: Identify the target standards, skills, and concepts

3: Select the most efficient assessment tool to pinpoint each individual's knowledge before the learning

4: Administer the preassessment before planning

5: Gather and interpret the data

6: Use the data to differentiate instructional plans" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 70) Signal and Action Responses Take a Stand Knowledge Base Corners Personal Surveys and Inventories Pretest This formative assessment tool is a quick way to determine what each students knowledge base level is. After introducing a new topic to the class students will choose an action suggested by the teacher to indicate their level (Chapman & King, 2012).

Ex. When introducing long division with polynomials, ask students if they remember long division with numbers.

Thumbs up --> I remember how to do long division.

Wiggle hands --> I kind of remember how to do long division.

Thumbs down --> I don't remember how to do long division. This formative assessment technique has students choose their level of knowledge base based on the number options provided by the teacher. Students who choose each number then move to the designated area of the classroom and discuss what they know on chart paper. This formative assessment can help reveal misconceptions about topics. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example:

When introducing factoring quadratics with polynomials have students rate their knowledge of factoring from 1 - 4 with 4 being an expert level.

After students write down their level, they can travel to that section of the room and discuss what they do remember about factoring.

Level 1 might remember greatest common factors, Level 2 might remember factoring by inspection, Level 3 might remember factoring by decomposition, and Level 4 might remember difference of squares and perfect square trinomials. This formative assessment tool is used to reveal students knowledge on particular concepts. This tool should be practiced with with topics like hobbies or sports first, before preassessing upcoming content. It should be reiterated several times with the class that it is okay to choose any corner, because they all offer opportunities to learn. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example: When getting ready to introduce the topic of radical functions with variables have students choose one of the four corners about their knowledge of radical functions with numbers

Not a clue!

I know a little bit!

I know a lot!

I've got it!

Students from each group can brainstorm what they do remember and present their findings to the class. This formative assessment tool "reveals the learner's interests, emotions, feelings, likes, dislikes, dreams and goals" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 78) This knowledge can be used to help plan projects or assessments that students will find engaging and motivating.

Example) After performing this preassessment you find that many students in your class like baseball, basketball, and football. You can then design a project when learning about quadratic equations that have students plot the trajectory of a ball, and create a quadratic equation that predicts where the ball will be in the air at certain times. Pretests provide a comprehensive picture of what students background knowledge is. Pretests must be designed carefully. The following is a list of things to keep in mind when planning a pretest:

Nobody should be able to achieve 0 or 100

The pretest should address the various levels of learners

Easy and difficult questions should be mixed up so students don't get discouraged after several hard questions in a row

Manipulatives should be included

Items should range from concrete to abstract and from simple to complex

The pretest can be used as a post test to show student growth (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 81) Know it! Show it! Response Cards Checkpoint Tests & Daily Grades Why use Formative Assessment During the Learning Process? Observation and Anecdotal Assessment Effective Questioning Rubrics Checklists Performance Assessment Teacher Made Tests Assessment After Learning Teaching by Readiness, Interest, & Learner Profile The Equalizer Foundational to Transformational Concrete to Abstract Simple to Complex Single Facet to Multiple Facets Small Leap to Great Leap More Structured to More Open - Ended Less Independence to Greater Independence Slow to Fast Interest Centers or Groups Real - Life Applications of Ideas and Skills Jigsaws WebQuests Design - A - Day Group Orientation Cognitive Style Learning Environment Intelligence Preference Assessment DURING Learning Assessment AFTER Learning Assessment BEFORE Learning Instructional Interactives GeoGebra Desmos Inspiration Wiki's and Blogs Khan Academy Real - World Applications http://www.yummymath.com/

http://realteachingmeansreallearning.blogspot.ca/p/open-ended-math-projects-and-lessons.html What is a Flipped Classroom? "Ongoing formative assessment during the learning experience keeps the learner on track and drives instructional planning" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 83)

Formative assessment can assist teachers with:

knowing when to reteach or enrich lessons

adjusting assignments

providing interventions and assistance

planning for a variety of instruction strategies (Chapman & King, 2012) Observation is an assessment tool that provides a teacher data on a students progress, strengths and weaknesses, behavior patterns, and appropriate resources to promote success (Chapman & King, 2012).

Anecdotal Assessment can help guide teacher observations, and provide a way to document observations made. Anecdotal assessment should be organized in a way that best fits a teachers needs such as index cards, or post - it notes.

When using observation and anecdotal assessment make sure you are record the date, and that your comments are clear, concise, and and not subjective (Chapman & King, 2012). "Know it! Show it! provides students with opportunities to process learning in different ways" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 86).

In conjunction with a choice board, students can select which method of showing what they know that fits their learning modality best. Some examples are: illustrate it, create an example, put it to a beat, demonstrate it with a manipulative, or tell a step - by - step procedure (Chapman & King, 2012).

Example) When completing the square in a mathematics classroom, you can do a check to see how much students understand by using Show it! Know it!

Students can choose to demonstrate their knowledge on completing the square by writing a step - by - step procedure, using algebra tiles, creating a song on the steps needed to complete this procedure, or they could complete an example. Response cards are a quick way of evaluating whether students understand a concept of not. The cards are double sided and can contain 2, 3, or even 4 different responses. When a teacher asks the class a questions they put their thumb on the response they have chosen on their side of the card and their pointer finger on the response they have chosen on the teachers side of the card. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) When teaching order of operations students can have response cards with the words: Parentheses, Exponents, Division, Multiplication, Addition, Subtraction

When working on an example at the board, the teacher can ask the students which operation comes next in the problem. If students choose the correct operation they likely understand order of operations. If they do not, they will need more instruction. "Use periodic checkpoint tests after reading an important section of the text, after demonstrating a skill, following an introduction of a new procedure, process, or sequence, or presenting a learning segment or important facts needing a quick assessment" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 92)

Daily grades can be gathered from pop quizzes, homework challenges, assignments, projects, etc. They give a clear picture on an individual students progress in a class. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) A checkpoint test could be used after teaching students the laws of exponents to make sure students have a clear understanding of all of the rules. "Assessing after the learning traditionally has been viewed as a way to analyze the student's mastery of the standards. Post - assessments are crucial because the results are analyzed to see if the learn has reached the initial goals. If the goals have not been reached, specific plans are customized for the individual" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 93)

There are many different types of formative assessment that can be used in the classroom. It is important to remember that if students have not mastered concepts, a plan should be put in place to help that mastery take place. Open - ended questions allows students to answer questions in detail, and explain their thoughts. If students can explain their process in detail, they have a clear understanding about the topic. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Reflective questions allow students to self - assess why they have the knowledge that they do, and how they can improve in the future. (Chapman & King, 2012) Rubrics are often used in conjunction with projects. They allow students, parents, and teachers a clear picture of exactly what is expected for each task. (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) Students are given the task to design a floorplan for a house using different shapes studied in class. They must calculate the area of each room, and the perimeter of each room. They must convert all their metric calculations into imperial. Students could be graded out of 4 on the following categories:

Number of shapes included that were studied in class

Proper calculations for area

Proper calculations for perimeter

Proper conversion of units "Checklists itemize standards, skills, or behaviors to observe or monitor for a specific purpose" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 104)

Checklists should contain observable, clear, specific items, include space for comments, use an easy - to - score format, space for the student name and date, and focus on quality items rather than quantity (Chapman & King, 2012) Performance assessments "give students opportunities to show what they know in creative ways" (Chapman & King, 2012, p. 114)

This allows students to choose ways to show what they know, that best fit their learning profile. Students can choose to:

Show it musically

Explain it

Demonstrate it

Write it

Show it visually (Chapman & King, 2012)

Example) Students could choose to show their understanding of volume of shapes by describing a step - by - step process to calculate it, demonstrating it with manipulatives that can be filled with water or sand, or by creating a poster. Teacher made tests are the most common type of summative assessment. Teachers should be cautious to make sure their tests show what students know, appropriate time is allowed, covers the content that needs to assessed, and uses many types of questioning formats depending on what is being assessed (Chapman & King, 2012).

Types of formats:

True/False

Multiple Choice

Numerical Response

Fill in the Blank

Open - Ended Questions

Problem - Based Assessment

Skills Tests

Performance Tests When ideas are new to students, they often need basic tasks and instructions to build a foundation of knowledge. When students already know information about a topic, they may need information that bends the idea and shows how it interacts with other ideas. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When students are learning surface area they may need to calculate surface area of simple shapes, while others may need to calculate surface area of more complex shapes, like buildings. Students need to become familiar with information or skills (concrete) before they can look at applications of that skill (abstract). (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Students must be able to successfully find first derivatives and second derivatives (concrete), before they can work on applications of derivatives like velocity and acceleration (abstract). Some students need to focus on the "big picture", without many details. Other students may be ready for one or multiple abstractions. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When learning permutations some students will need to focus on how to calculate simple permutations, while other students will understand this and can study permutations with one or many restrictions. Some students are working to the best of their ability will simple, few-step problems. Other students have the ability to work on multi-step problems and relate what they are learning to other subjects. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) In Calculus some students will only be able to find derivatives using chain rule, while other students will be able to do derivatives that use chain rule, product rule and quotient rule. Some students will be able to apply concepts learned in class to simple applications, while other students will be able to apply it to complex applications or even further. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Learning how to measure area and applying it by estimating the area of a hamster's house compared to a teachers desk vs. estimating and verifying area to estimating materials needed for a building and the cost of the materials (Tomlinson, 2004) Some students need steps laid out for them that do not involve many decisions, while other students have the capability to be more creative (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When finding a formula to represent a pattern some students will need to have the pattern provided and prompts to fill in tables, graphs etc. Other students will be able to find their own pattern and come up with a formula without assistance. Students develop independence in four stages: skill building, structured independence, shared independence, and self - guided independence (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) When students are completing mathematical research in structured independence the topic might be provided by the teacher, along with set due dates for each part that needs to be completed. In self-guided independence, the student will select their own topic and decide what components to research, only checking in with the teacher when needed. Students who struggle with the concept being presented will need to spend more time on it, while other students will be able to more quickly through the content in order to stay engaged and motivated (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Some students will need to spend several days learning how to multiply binomials with manipulatives, grids, and by distribution, while other students will move through all three stages quickly and be ready to move onto factoring. "Interest centers...and interest groups...can provide enrichment for student who demonstrate mastery/competence with required work and can be a vehicle for providing these students with meaningful study when required assignments are completed" (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 100) Example) Students can explore real-life applications of graphs in economics such as profit, or real-life applications of statistics such as chance of winning the lottery. Real-life applications of ideas and skills can give relevance to what students are learning. If the real-life application is something that is of interest to the student, the project will be more motivating and engaging.

Ex) Students can research the usefulness of fractions and decimals in a career they are interested in (Tomlinson, 2004) This is a cooperative learning strategy that has students study one facet of a topic they can choose from a list. The students learn about this topic and meet with other students have learned about this topic to get as much information as possible. They will then go back to their home group and each student will present the information they found on their topic (Tomlinson, 2004).

Example) Students are learning about trigonometry. In a jigsaw, students are able to choose from the following list of things to study: history of trigonometry, applications of trigonometry, how to solve for unknown angles, and how to solve for unknown sides. "The WebQuest is a teacher - designed Internet lesson developed with specific learning goals in mind, some specified and relevant Internet links, and guidelines that support students in the research or finding out process...WebQuests can easily be differentiated...by student interest (Tomlinson, 2004, p. 58-59)

Example: The following is a WebQuest on using Mathematics to Determine Climate

http://www.mathgoodies.com/webquests/climate/ The object of design-a-day is to have students choose what they want to work on during a class period, set goals and time lines, and work towards them. Students can choose a topic that interests them, or a project they may have seen another class do. (Tomlinson, 2004)

Example) Some students decide to create a rollercoaster and measure it's slope in different areas while other students choose to measure the slope of stairwells and wheelchair ramps around the school. Some students work best independently, some students work best in small groups, and other students work best in a large group. Teachers should allow opportunities for all three configurations to occur throughout the unit so that all students have an opportunity to work in the group orientation that best suits them. Some students thrive when there is noise, while others need peace and quiet. Some students prefer to sit still, while others need to be mobile. The classroom should be designed to support all types of learners.

Some suggestions to achieve different learning environments are:

- having dividers so that students can complete work independently

- having high tables with no chairs so students can stand and be mobile while working

- allowing students to listen to music with headphones if they need noise Every student has a preferred method of learning. While it would be very time consuming to teach each concept eight different ways, teachers should keep in mind the 8 multiple intelligences when designing their lessons and assessments. Throughout the course of a unit all preferred methods of learning should be utilized in at least one lesson or activity. When assessing, allow students choice so they can pick an assignment that is more in line with their preferred learning style. There are many different cognitive styles that students can have. Teachers must take care to provide many activities in the classroom that utilize different cognitive styles so students can be successful.

Examples

Collaboration vs. Competition: Some activities should be group orientated and promote collaboration, while other activities can focus on competition such as timed events or review games like Jeopardy.

Oral/Visual/Kinesthetic: Sometimes lessons can be presented orally with a lecture, visually with a movie or diagram, or kinesthetically with manipulatives.

Easily Distracted/Long Attention Span: Activities an be designed so that students with long attention spans can continue working, while students who are easily distracted are allowed breaks, or can work on a series of short activities. GeoGebra is a free software package that can allow students to explore mathematical concepts visually.

Example) Students can explore trigonometry with the following three GeoGebra lessons:

Desmos is a free online calculator, that allows students to explore graphs visually to discover for themselves what effect different parameters of functions have on a graph. Inspiration is a software program that allows students to create graphic organizers, concept maps, mind maps, webs, outlines, plots and graphs.

This can help students organize their notes, assignments, see concepts visually, create connections, etc. Wiki's and Blogs can be set up within classrooms as a portal for students to access materials, converse with other students, etc. Teachers can post due dates, content, lessons, videos, and links.

Wiki's and Blogs can increase classroom communication, and provide resources for students to access further information. This is the "use of multimedia for instruction rather than as instruction" (Hubbell et.al, 2012, p. 142) A great mathematical example of this is online manipulatives. This can allow students to explore concepts kinesthetically. Real - world applications makes learning more engaging and motivating. The following are some websites that provide real - world applications of Mathematics. Assessment with Technology One way to competed assessment during learning is through the use of eclickers. There are many different types of software available that can be used.

Socrative is just one example of software designed to quiz students in class, which provides immediate feedback. Socrative can be used in - class or as an exit slip to get an idea of what students know or do not know.

http://www.socrative.com/

Smart Response is another version of eclickers. This technology needs to be purchased and can be integrated into SmartBoard presentations. Information collected can be put into charts and graphs.

http://smarttech.com/response

WebQuests are a great way to assess students summatively. Not only can they be differentiated by interest, they can be differentiated by readiness as well. There are many WebQuests already premade that you can use and edit, or you can make your own.

Performance Assessments can also be completed with technology. Students can create ePortfolios, or how - to videos on concepts they have learned. Assessment Before Learning can be done with surveys. Why not make these survey's digital and engaging?

Survey Monkey can be used to learn how much a student knows about a topic. You can take students responses and make them into charts and graphs.

http://www.surveymonkey.com/

Poll Everywhere is another online tool that an be used to collect student feedback. With this software, students are able to submit their answers with their cell phones via text messaging, or online with a computer.

http://www.polleverywhere.com/ Technology can be used in many ways in the classroom, even with assessment.

The following are just a few ideas on how to use technology for assessment BEFORE, DURING, and AFTER learning. "The flipped classroom is a pedagogical model in which the typical lecture and homework elements of a course are reversed. Short video lectures are viewed by students at home before the class session, while in-class time is devoted to exercises, projects, or discussions." ("7 things you", 2012) Khan Academy offers online Mathematical Videos (among other topics), that teach students different concepts or lessons. This website is often used in conjunction with a flipped classroom model.

Even if you are not using the flipped classroom model, links from Khan Academy could be posted to a classroom wiki, blog or webpage for students to view. This would provide visual and auditory learners another resource. In addition, if students miss class, they would be able to catch up on what they missed at home. Teachers must keep in mind that not all students have the same background knowledge. Learning must be interesting, engaging, and relevant for students in order to keep them motivated to learn. In a differentiated classroom, students take more responsibility for their learning because they have a vested interest in what outcomes they accomplishing. (Tomlinson, 2004) Slope = Rise/Run (Tomlinson, 2012) (Hogen) ("Can you help me", 2012) ("Northern cardinal") ("Buzzard") ("Bluebird") ("Suits that fit bad too big too small") ("Pre-planning") (Henderson, 2011) ("Assessment cycle") ("Content, process, product") ("Student centered learning", 2010) ("Whole class instruction") ("Organic", 2010) (Hume, 2010) ("Frames of mind") (2011) ("Ethnic cartoon") (2012) (Tomlinson, 2012) ("The equalizer") ("Concrete, representational, abstract") ("Difference", 2009) ("The national lottery") ("Max profit") ("Jigsaw puzzle in four colours") (Glosser, 2013) ("Rollercoaster") ("Whole class instruction") ("Working while standing") ("DJ headphones") ("Multiple intelligences", 2008) (Hopeinschools, 2011) ("Yes no maybe") ("Radical") ("Parabolic trajectory") ("Anecdotal observation record") ("PEDMAS") ("Questions and answers signpost", 2011) ("Checklist cartoon") Why Would You Flip Your Classroom? (Learning4mastery, 2010) Does it Work? Many schools that have implemented the flipped classroom have seen remarkable success. It has been "report[ed] that prior to facilitating the flip at Clintondale High School in Michigan, more than 50% of freshman students failed English and 44% failed math. With the flipped classroom in place, the number of freshman students failing English dropped to 19%, with only 13% failing math" (Da Silva, 2013) How Does a Flipped Classroom Allow Differentiation? Because lessons are viewed outside of the classroom, more time is freed up in the classroom to work on projects, assignments, groupwork, and higher-level thinking.

Students will be able to identify what they don't understand from the video, and seek help from their teacher, while students who do understand can choose what activity they want to work on. http://www.khanacademy.org/ Differentiation with Technology Many of the differentiation techniques discussed in this presentation can be accomplished using technology. It allows students to access lessons orally, visually, and kinesthetically. It can promote individual work, or group work. Technology can increase communication in a classroom.

The following are a list of ways Technology can be used. http://www.teachmaths-inthinking.co.uk/files/teachmaths/files/Geometry/discovering%20ratios%20in%20rt%20angled%20triangles/discovering_ratios_rightangled_triangles.pdf

http://www.teachmaths-inthinking.co.uk/files/teachmaths/files/Geometry/discovering%20ratios%20in%20rt%20angled%20triangles/opp%20hyp.html

http://www.teachmaths-inthinking.co.uk/files/teachmaths/files/Geometry/discovering%20ratios%20in%20rt%20angled%20triangles/cosine%20and%20tangent.html Example) Students can graph a list of quadratic functions changing parameters "a", "b", "h", and "k" to self - discover how each parameter effects the graph. https://www.desmos.com/ http://www.inspiration.com/ (Gough) http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html Other Websites that Use Technology The following two websites have many different ideas for using technology for differentiation. Not only do they have links to many Web 2.0 Tools, they provide instruction on how to use these tools effectively. http://kathyschrock.net/ http://kuglinlive.wikispaces.com/Home Top 10 Reasons to Use Technology in the Classroom (Amplivoxsound, 2011) ("Survey monkey", 2013) ("Poll everywhere") ("Base ten blocks", 2010)