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Food and Nutrition Science: Vitamins

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Charlotte Au-Yeung

on 9 March 2011

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Transcript of Food and Nutrition Science: Vitamins

Food & Nutrition Sciences
Nutrient Presentation Assignment By: Michelle Tai
Aimee Fan
Sally Lau
Sally Yang
Charlotte Au-Yeung Vitamins: General Overview • Complex organic substances
• Needed in small amount
• Not produced by bodies
• Provide no energy
• 2 types: Fat-soluble (A, D, E, K)
: Water soluble (B-complex and
C)
Water Soluble Vitamins: General B-vitamins Information: • Easily absorbed/ lost
• 8 types
• Important in development/function of
nerve and brain tissue
• Helps digestion


Thiamine (BI): •Converts protein,
carbohydrates,
and fats into energy
•Aids in development
of important body
functions Functions: Nutrient Illness: •Excess: not a problem
•Deficiency: leads to Beriberi
Risk Factors: •Pregnant and
nursing women
•Infants
•Alcohol abusers
•People in
developing
countries


Treatment: •Thiamine
supplements
•Blood tests
Prevention: •Diet rich in
thiamine
•Cut down
consumption
of alcohol
•B-complex
vitamins

Food Sources: •Pasta
•Fortified
breads
•Fish
•Lean meats

Presence of
Illness: •Exists in
developing
countries
•Rare nowadays Beriberi: •Wet Beriberi
•Dry Beriberi
* inherited Types: Complications: •Neurological
damages
•Coma
•DEATH!!! Fat soluble vitamins •Easily absorbed
•Stored in liver
and fatty tissues
•Can build up General Fat Soluble
Vitamins Information: Vitamin A: Functions: •Aids in
formation of
epithelial tissue
and bone tissue
•Maintain healthy
eyesight

Food Sources: •Dairy products
•Plant sources
Prevention: •Diet rich in vitamin A Presence of Illness: •Undeveloped
and developing
nations Excess of Vitamin A •Liver damage
•Severe headaches
•Bone pain Deficiency of Vitamin A •Membrane covering
eye becomes dry and
hard
•Infection of eye
•Blindness

Risk Factors: •People who eat
few vegetables
or drink little milk
Riboflavin (B2): Functions: •Release energy from
proteins, carbohydrates,
and fats
•Keeps eyesight and skin healthy Food Sources: •Milk products
•Enriched/whole
grain cereals
•Fish Risk Factors: •Individuals who
do not consume foods
rich in riboflavin Excess of Riboflavin: Deficiency of Riboflavin: •Toxicity symptoms
have not been reported
•Extra-- excreted in urine •Eye disorder
•Mental Confusion
•Inflamed tongue
•Cracked skin around corner of mouth Pyridoxine: Functions: •Aids in development
of nervous system
•Converts fatty acids
into usable form
•Converts amino acids
into niacin

Food Sources: •Soya beans
•Walnuts
•Sunflower seeds Risk Factors: •Smokers
•Alcoholics
•Individuals using
contraceptives Presence of Illness: •Pretty common Treatment: •Clinical evaluation
•Measurements of
levels of vitamin B6
in the body

Prevention: •Quit smoking
•Change cooking style
•Reduce alcohol or
caffeine consumption

Deficiency of Pyridoxine: •Depression
•Fatigue
•Skin lesions
Cobalamin Functions: •Aids in formation of
red blood cells and
DNA synthesis
Food Sources: •Plain yogurt
•White tuna
•Swiss cheese
•Milk
Presence of Illness: •Pretty common Prevention: •Balanced diet
•Supplements Treatment: •Injections
•Supplements
•Diet rich in
vitamin B12

Risk Factors: •Vegetarians
•Infants
•Alcoholics
•Individuals with
gastrointestinal
disorders
•Older adults


Excess of Cobalamin: •Liver diseases
(cirrhosis or hepatitis) Deficiency of Cobalamin Megaloblastic Anaemia
•Depression
•Neurological changes
•Increased heart rate
Folate Functions: •Creates and uses
proteins to form cells
•Aids in normal replication
of DNA cells of fetus

* works closely with
vitamins B12 and C
Food Sources: •Citrus fruits
•Dark green leafy vegetables
•Meat
Treatment: •Laboratory tests
•Folic acid pills Prevention: •Eat according
to Food Guide
•Supplements Presence of Illness: •Pretty common
on global scale Risk Factors: •Adolescents
•Alcoholics
•Pregnant females
•Infants
•Elderly

Excess of Folic Acid •Mask deficiency of
vitamin BI2 Deficiency of Folic Acid Folic Acid Deficiency Anaemia
•Abnormally large
red blood cells
•Premature babies
•Reduced immune functions

Treatment: •Change eating habits
•Supplements Prevention: •Make good
food choices Presence of Illness: •Undeveloped nations Treatment: •Diet rich in
vitamin A
•Supplements Niacin (B3) Functions: •Keeps skin and
nervous system
healthy
•Promotes normal
digestion
•invovles in energy
metabolism Food Sources: •Meat
•Nuts
•Whole grain
cereal/bread Deficiency of Niacin Pellagra:
•Poor appetite
•Diarrhea
•Dermatitis Excess of Niacin: •Niacin Flush
•Nausea
•Low blood
pressure Risk Factors: •Pregnant women
•Children
•Alcoholics Treatments: •Supplements
•Diet rich in
niacin Presence of Illness: •Undeveloped
countries Prevention: •Avoid use
of alcohol
•Balanced
diet Pantothenic Acid: Functions: •Synthesizes vital
substances
•Promotes growth
•Responsible for
metabolism of
energy nutrients

Defiency/Excess
of Pantothenic Acid: •Very rare Biotin: Functions: •Aids in release
of energy from
carbohydrates,
fats, and proteins
•Helps make fat
and glycogen Deficiency of Biotin: •Abnormal heart rhythms
•Dry scaly skin
•Fatigue
Excess of Biotin: •No health risks
or benefits Vitamin D: Functions: •Regulates the
calcium level
•Triggers calcium release
•Increases absorption of calcium
Deficiency of Vitamin D: Rickets:
•Soft and misshaped bones
•Bulge out/in Excess of Vitamin D: •Can be poisonous
•Soft organs become
hard and malfunction Risk Factors: •Children Food Sources: •Fatty fish/fish oil
•Eggs
•Butter Vitamin E: Functions: •Maintains healthy
nervous/immune
system
•Prevents cancer and
cardiovascular diseases Excess of Vitamin E: •Nausea
•Digestive problems
•Interfere with
blood clotting Deficiency of Vitamin E: •Speech/ vision
problems
•Weak muscle
coordination
•Erythrocyte Hemolysis Presence of Illness: •Rare Risk Factors: •Premature infants
•Individuals with difficulty in absorbing or metabolizing fat Treatment: •Supplements Vitamin K: Functions: •Synthesis of protein
for blood coagulation
and bone metabolism Food Sources: •Leafy green vegetables
•Liver
•Grains
•Meat Deficiency of Vitamin K: Jaundice:
•Yellowing of skin
•Brain damage Risk Factors: •Infants
•Antibiotic users Treatment/Prevention: •Diet rich in
vitamin K
•Supplements Presence of Illness: •Very rare Vitamin C: Food Sources: •Multiple fruits
•Potatoes
•Carrots
•Oysters Functions: •Assists in formation
of collagen
•Decreases bacteriological
activities
•Increases immune system
•Helps wounds heal faster Deficiency of Vitamin C: Scurvy:
•Weight loss
•Rapid bleeding
•Fever Excess of Vitamin C: •Stomach upset
•Diarrhea Risk Factors: •Alcoholics
•Homeless people
•Individuals with
poor diet Treatment: •Supplements
•Orange juice
•Injection of
vitamin C Prevention: •Consume adequate amount
of vitamin C Presence of Illness: •Developing countries
•People living in poverty THANK YOU FOR
LISTENING!!!! :) The End
Full transcript