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The Evolution of Print Media
Transcript of The Evolution of Print Media
Historical Development of
The history of printing in its broadest sense can be said to go back to the duplication of images by means of stamps in very early times. The use of round cylinder seals for rolling an impress onto clay tablets goes back to early Mesopotamian civilization before 3000 BC, where they are the most common works of art to survive, and feature complex and beautiful images.
In order to survive, print media has to find a way to reach new readers, find new means of distribution, and reduce the cost of production.
Block printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia both as a method of printing on textiles and later, under the influence of Buddhism, on paper. As a method of printing on cloth, the earliest surviving examples from China date to about 220. Ukiyo-e is the best known type of Japanese woodblock art print. Most European uses of the technique on paper are covered by the art term woodcut, except for the block-books produced mainly in the fifteenth century.
Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg introduced what is regarded as the first modern movable type system in Europe (see printing press), along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould. Gutenberg was the first to create his type pieces from an alloy of lead, tin, and antimony – the same components still used today.
Compared to woodblock printing, movable type page setting and printing using a press was faster and more durable. The metal type pieces were sturdier and the lettering more uniform, leading to typography and fonts. The high quality and relatively low price of the Gutenberg Bible (1455) established the superiority of movable type for western languages, and printing presses rapidly spread across Europe, leading up to the Renaissance, and later all around the world. Today, practically all movable type printing ultimately derives from Gutenberg's innovations to movable type printing, which is often regarded as the most important invention of the second millennium.
Books are the oldest medium of mass communication.
They are collections of printed pages bound together.
Their content can be information and/or entertainment.
Preparation and production of a book can take many months.
According to Google, there may be 130 million books in circulation.
Newspapers are collections of printed pages folded together.
Their content is mostly public affairs and events information reporting with some entertainment.
Preparation and production of a newspaper can take hours.
Tens of thousands of individual newspapers are published.
Magazines are collections of printed pages bound together.
Their content includes both information and entertainment.
Preparation and production of a magazine can take many weeks.
There are some 20,000 different magazines.
Newsletters are regular publications of only a few folded pages.
Generally, they address one main topic and are informative or entertaining.
Newsletters provide information to members, customers, employees and friends of organizations.
Preparation and production of a newsletter may require only a few hours.
There are hundreds of thousands of newsletters.
News media are the elements of mass media that bring us reports of current events and current affairs information.
They include print media such as newspapers and magazines, and electronic and broadcast media such as radio and television, websites, blogs, wikis, Facebook pages, Twitter tweets, and online representations of traditional news media.
The Internet is a global network connecting millions of computers. More than 100 countries are linked into exchanges of data, news and opinions!
How can we address this kind of change in the world of print media?
The biggest change is the media which we read, whereby computer screens are capturing an increasingly large slice of total reading time.
Reading habits are changing. What we read and how we read is evolving over time. But are we reading less than we used to?
Issues and Concerns
Reading is a task that we’ve historically associated with printed materials. Novels, textbooks, reference manuals, magazines, newspapers, journals, articles, poems, short stories… all of these great documents were historically printed and distributed on pieces of paper, bound or loose, for centuries.
The World Wide Web has had a negative impact but only on certain kinds of reading. Internet usage has had an impact on magazine and newspaper reading, as well as television watching.
The Effect of the Internet on Reading Habits
It will expand the universe of books at our fingertips, and transform the solitary act of reading into something far more social. It will give writers and publishers the chance to sell more obscure books, but it may well end up undermining some of the core attributes that we have associated with book reading for more than 500 years.
IS THE INTERNET SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEMISE OF PRINT MEDIA?
It’s no big news flash that newspapers and other print media are in a heap of trouble.
Why is that happening? Obviously the internet has impacted the print media business. All the content that used to be available exclusively in print is now available to just about anyone online.
Every day more and more readers are opting to read newspapers and magazines on their computers, their tablet PC’s or their phones.
The Positive effect of New Media in the sphere of Print Media
Can we conclude that we are witnessing the death of print?
The answer is no, at least not globally.
We are witnessing not the “death” of print but rather the adaptation of print and
news organizations to rapidly changing consumer patterns and a corresponding shift
toward digital content. the print media industry has been in the process of
adaptation to a new technological era - the so-called New Media. The changing news environment is not a new phenomenon brought about by the Internet alone
The Meganews Magazines newsstand addresses each of these problems and more. The machine (which takes up space of less than 4 square meters) allows customers to choose the publication they want to buy via a touchscreen, pay with a credit card, and get a copy, printed on the spot, in two minutes. The newsstand is connected to the internet and can download upon request the latest pdf files from any partner publisher's server.
An electronic book (variously: e-book, eBook, e-Book, ebook, digital book, or even e-edition) is a book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or both, readable on computers or other electronic devices. Although sometimes defined as "an electronic version of a printed book", many e-books exist without any printed equivalent. Commercially produced and sold e-books are usually intended to be read on dedicated e-book readers, however, almost any sophisticated electronic device that features a controllable viewing screen, including computers, many mobile phones, and all smartphonescan also be used to read e-books.
The newspaper industry is facing two simultaneous crises stemming from the decline in newspapers’ circulation and advertising revenues and the rise of widely available and free online news content.
Publications have tried to find ways to make up for the loss of print editions through alternative investments, either in the media or other unrelated fields, or through the monetization of online content – which, as mentioned, is not always easy or successful.
Threats of Innovation
Every genuinely revolutionary technology implants some kind of "aha" moment in your memory -- the moment where you flip a switch and something magical happens, something that tells you in an instant that the rules have changed forever.
There is great promise and opportunity in the digital-books revolution. The question is: Will we recognize the book itself when that revolution has run its course?
If so, if the future is about to be rewritten, the big question becomes: How?
It has become very apparent that with technology rampantly evolving and shaping our world, as authors and entrepreneurs we must evolve with it. Just as these devices have created a world of convenience and opportunity for the reader, so it is for the author, so long as we keep looking forward and try to stay just ahead of the breaker. This should not be viewed as a threat to our craft, or to our personal success, but rather a wave of new opportunities to ride that was not possible before.
Print media are lightweight, portable, disposable publications printed on paper and circulated as physical copies in forms we call books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters.
They hold informative and entertaining content that is of general or special interest. They are published either once or daily, weekly, biweekly, monthly, bimonthly or quarterly.
Their competitors include electronic, broadcast and Internet media. Today, many books, newspapers, magazines and newsletters publish digital electronic editions on the Internet.
It is clear that the print media industry is not in the process of marching towards its death, but is coming to terms with a period of uncertainty and rapid technological change. The challenge of the future, while it is uncertain, is one that the industry appears to be increasingly ready to meet.
"The ‘digital age’ may be a new challenge, but it is one we do not have to face alone."
Kerwin Timothy M. Gaza