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Environmental Legislation Timeline

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abbey vinson

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Environmental Legislation Timeline

Environmental Legislation Timeline 1916 National Park Service Act 1935 Soil Conservation Act 1947 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act 1955 Clean Air Act 1956 Fish and Wildlife Act 1957 Price-Anderson Act 1964 Wilderness Act Land and Water Conservation Act Water Quality Act Water Resources Planning Act 1965 1966 Species Conservation Act Freedom of Information Act 1968 National Trails System Act 1969 National Environmental Policy Act Clean Water Act Marine Mammal Protection Act 1972 1973 Endangered Species Act 1974 Renewable Resources Planning Act Safe Drinking Water Act 1975 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species Federal Land Policy and Management Act Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act National Forest Management Act Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 1976 1977 Soil and Water Conservation Act Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act 1978 Arctic Conservation Act Energy Tax Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act Low Level Radioactive Policy Act 1980 By: Abbey Vinson 1982 Nuclear Waste Policy Act 1983 International Environmental Protection Act 1985 Food Security Act 1986 Emergency Wetlands Resources Act 1987 Montreal Protocol 1988 Ocean Dumping Ban Act 1989 Madrid Protocol 1990 Environmental Education Act Lacey Act Pollution Prevention Act Waste Reduction Act 1994 California Desert Protection Act 1996 Food Quality Protection Act 1997 Kyoto Protocol established the National Park Service of the U.S.
part of the U.S. Dept. of the Interior
purpose: to preserve nature for future generations
1st agency of this kind in the world
passed to create uniform guidelines for establishing national parks signed by FDR
established the Soil Conservation Service that deals with soil erosion problems
first director: Hugh Hammond Bennett
surveyed soil, proposed solutions to problems such as soil salinity, published (and still does) maps of soil erosion and other problems
provided material for computor databases for scientific research provides for federal regulation of pesticide distribution, usage, and sale
requires that all pesticides used in the U.S. must be registered by the EPA (which makes sure it will not cause "unreasonable" environmental harm aka: "Air Pollution Control Act"
first federal air pollution act
provided funds for federal research in air pollution
didn't do much to controll pollution at first, but recognized it as a problem that needed to be studied and addressed established a national policy of protection and wise use of fish, shellfish, and wildlife with emphasis on the commercial fishing industry
goal: to protect the right of every citizen to fish for pleasure and to mantain public opportunities for recreational use of fish
directs a program for continued research on fish and wildlife
created the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service within the Dept. of the Interior aka: "Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act"
limits the liability of the nuclear industry in the event of a nuclear accident in the U.S
no company was willing to accept full liability in the event of a spill or meltdown, so this act enabled the nuclear industry to grow without fear of crushing liability created the legal definition of wilderness in the U.S.
purpose: to give Congress a way to protect America's most pristine wildlands for future generations by declaring them to be protected wilderness
created the National Wilderness Preservation System (protects about 110 million acres across the U.S. created the Land and Water Conservation Fund to aquire, plan, and develop lands
purpose: to regulate admission and special recreation areas and preserve such areas for public use goal: improve water quality established the Federal Water Pollution Control Administration established water quality standards goal: to establish governing bodies that would overlook the creation and protection of water resource locations
established the Water Resources Council as a governing body to study and assess water sources, study river basin plans and to decide how to best act in the nation's favor
ultimately viewed as a failure and terminated aka: Endangered Species Preservation Act (ESA)
goal: to prevent the further extinction of endangered animal species in the United States and to help these populations to grow
required the Secretary of the Interior to produce a list of vertebrates that were in danger of extinction.
provieded for the protectionof these species whenever possible and convenient.
it prohibited the killing of these animals within the national wildlife refuge system; yet allowed the degradation of critical habitats for these animals. aka: FIOA
goal: public discolsure of environmental info
states that: any person has a right, enforceable in court, to have access to federal agency records.
All federal agencies, including EPA, are required to make records available unless they are protected from the public by a FOIA exemption (nine exemptions) listed in the act
however, FOIA applies only to federal agencies, not to records held of Congress, the courts, or state or local government agencies purpose: to establish a national trail system for historical, scientific, and recreational purposes
authorized the creation of the trails and defined four categories of national trails aka: NEPA
one of the first laws to establish a national framework for protecting the environment
purpose: requires that all branches of government consider the effects of their actions on the environment before engaging in any major federal action/porject, such as: airports, buildings, military complexes, highways, land purchases
required branches of government to submit Environmental Assessments (EAs) and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs) explaining the anticipated effects of their proposed projects on the environment aka: CWA
purpose: to regulate the discharge of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulate quality standards for surface waters
set wastewater standards for industry and set water quality standards for contaminants in surface waters
made it illegal to release any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters, unless with a permit
result: industrial, municipal, and other facilities must have permits if their discharges go directly to surface waters. aka: MMPA
protects all marine mamals by prohibiting citizens from taking marine mammals in U.S. waters and the high seas, and banning the importation of marine mammals and products into the U.S. purpose: to conserve threatened and endangered plants and animals and their habitats
requires federal agenices to make sure that their actions will not threaten the extinction of any listed species or destroy/degrade their habitats
also prohibits taking any listed species of endangered fish/wildlife and the import/export, interstate/foreign trade of listed species (RPA) required the Secretary of Agriculture to assess the Nation's renewable resources every 10 years
purpose: to guarantee the future supply of forest resources and maintain the quality of the environment
provided for a plan to prepare for the future of natural resources (SDWA) purpose: to ensure the quality of U.S. drinking water and protect drinking water sources
EPA sets standards for drinking water quality and enforces them among the states, localities, and water suppliers (CITES) global treaty
goal: to make sure that international trade in of wild animals and plants does not threaten the survival of the species
offers protection to more than 34,000 species of animals and plants
calls for sustainable use and management of animal/plant populations
uses trade monitoring and permits that are only issued if the trade is legal and doesn't threaten the species’ survival in the wild. (FLPMA)
established a way to manage and maintain lands in the west that was flexible for future generations
established "multiple use" of public lands an amendment to the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974
called for better management of renewable resources and national forest lands
specifically concerned with governing the administration of national forests (NFMA) goal: to protect biodiversity in National Forests and to ensure public involvement in forest planning and management
allows logging only where it will not badly harm the soil or water sources (RCRA) gave EPA authority to control hazardous waste
includes the production, transportation, treatment, storage, and disposal of hazardous waste.
created a plan for the management of non-hazardous solid wastes calls for USDA (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture) to periodically form a national plan for soil and water conservation on private lands based on an inventory, research, and appraisal of current resource conditions and trends.
purpose: conservation, protection, and improvement of soil and water (SMCRA) purpose: to regulate the environmental effects of coal mining in the U.S.
created two programs:
1) regulates active coal mines
2) reclaims abandoned mines
also created the Office of Surface Mining, within Dpt. of Interior, to:
promote regulations
fund state regulatory and reclamation efforts
maintain consistency between state programs purpose: to protect and conserve plants and animals of the Arctic
placed restrictions on hunting, fishing, whaling and sealing part of the National Energy Act
goal: to promote fuel efficiency and new sources of renewable energy through tax incentives and tax credits
gave an income tax credit/incentive to private residents who used solar, wind, or geothermal sources of energy (CERCLA), aka: Superfund
taxed chemical and petroleum industries
provided Federal authority to respond directly to releases/release threats of hazardous wastes that could harm public health or environment
$1.6 billion collected and went into a trust fund for cleaning up abandoned hazardous waste sites
urges states to develop conservation programs for non-game fish and wildlife
aids them by providing financial and technical assistance stated that each state was responsible for disposing its own LLRW (Low Level Radioactive Waste) within its boundaries
states can enter into disposal compacts with neighboring states with Congressional authorization
Compacts decide what facilities are needed and which state will house the wast and how long
(NWPA) authorizes the use of deep underground geologic repositories for the safe storage and disposal of high- level radioactive waste
establishes procedures to evaluate and choose sites for geologic repositories
also provides a timetable of objectives the federal agencies must meet in carrying out the program
authorizes the President to help other countries to protect and maintain wildlife
states that the Agency for International Development (AID) will use the World Conservation Strategy as a guide to conserve biological diversity
prevents harmful actions that significantly degrade national parks and other protected areas, or introduce nonnative species
aka: "Swampbuster" provisions
goal: to discourage the conversion of wetlands into non-wetland areas, protect wetlands
cracking down on farmers:
1)denied Federal farm program benefits to farmers who converted wetlands after December 23, 1985 and in years to come
2)allowed farmers to regain lost Federal benefits if they restored destroyed wetlands
yay! wetland legislation!!! purpose: to protect and promote conservation of the Nations wetlands and establish National Wildlife Refuges for waterfoul
gathered funds for the purchase of wetlands by the Secretary of Interior
instituted a National Wetlands Priority Conservation Plan, which included a requirement for all States to include wetlands as part of their Comprehensive Outdoors Recreation plan full title: Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by reducing the production of substances responsible for ozone depletion
if the agreement is followed, the ozone layer is expected to recover by 2050 Yay! MORE wetland legislation!!! goal: save the oceans!!
prohibits the dumping of all municipal sewage sludge and industrial waste into the ocean after December 31, 1991
designates that revenue from the payment for dumping and any penalty charges of dumpers will be put into funds for finding alternatives to ocean dumping international treaty for the protection of Antarctica
designates Antarctica as a ‘natural reserve, devoted to peace and science’, prohibits mining, assesses the environmental impacts of activities, established a Committee for Environmental Protection, requires the development of contingency plans to respond to environmental emergencies, defines rules relating to liability for environmental damage
created the Madrid System for international registration of trademarks purpose: to promote environmental education
created the National Environmental Education Advisory Council
provided for environmental education in schools and disclosure of environmental happenings to the public protects plants and wildlife by creating civil and criminal penalties for violations
prohibits trade of wildlife, fish, and plants that have been illegally taken, possessed, transported or sold
made it a separate offense to take, possess, transport, or sell wildlife illegally
Lacey Act was introduced by Congressman John Lacey focused industry, government, and the public on reducing pollution using cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use
advocated source reduction rather than just pollution prevention purpose: to reduce and prevent the production and disposal of waste
to encourage consumers, manufacturers, distributors, retailers, governments, government agencies and private citizens to work towards the reduction and prevention of waste
to increase public awareness of the horrible effects of waste on the environment and natural resources
to make sure that the use of resources today meet the needs of the present population without causing future generations to fail to meet their own needs
goal: preservation of desert lands in California
established the Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks and the Mojave National Preserve standardized the EPA would manage the use of pesticides
amended the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act and the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act
created a health-based standard for pesticides used in foods
set more rigid safety standards, especially for infants and children
called for a complete reassessment of all existing pesticide tolerances
streamlined the approval of safe pesticides
established incentives for the creation of safer pesticides
required up-to-date pesticide registrations international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
goal: reduce greenhouse gas emissions to slow/stop global warming
set stict targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas emissions
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