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Unit 6: Westward Expansion (1803-1850s)
Transcript of Unit 6: Westward Expansion (1803-1850s)
Part I: Early Expansion
What are we learning???
Part II: Expansion & Imperialism
Part III: Side-Effects of Expansion
Part IV: Manifest Destiny
Land purchase from Napoleon/France
Mississippi River to Rocky Mts.
Doubled size of U.S. for $15 million
Problem: President can't purchase land
First use of "elastic clause"
Lewis and Clark Expedition
~explore new territory
~find water route to Pacific Ocean
Results of L & C Expedition
Scientific and agricultural discovery
Est. diplomatic relations with Indians
Detailed maps; used by later groups
Set path for westward expansion
Cycle of Expansion led to...
~near extinction of buffalo; plants
~moving Indians to reservations
Part 1: Early Expansion
A Tiny Reminder About Treaty of Paris (1783)
British and U.S. are to share Mississippi River
After Louisiana Purchase:
U.S. wants to trade with Britain AND France
British Navy begins impressment of sailors
Forcing men into military service
What's the Problem?
They're taking American "citizens"
"But I wanted to be an imperialist power!"
Suspend trade with Britain AND France
All American ships ordered to stay in port.
Intention: Britain and France see U.S. as neutral
(end impressment; open trade)
Failure of Jefferson's Embargo?
France began impressment of U.S. ships
British developed new markets for goods.
Open foreign trade to all EXCEPT France and Britain
Impossible to enforce
Main Causes of War of 1812
Continued British attacks on American ships; impressment
Great Britain restricted rights to trade
Orders of Council: Limited U.S. trade with France
Native Americans push back against Expansion
Who do we support? Great Britain or France?
3 Phases of War
U.S. forces invade English forts in Canada
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
You mad, bro?
British end trade restrictions (Orders of Council)
British troops ordered to leave U.S. frontier
All land held prior to war restored
Battle of New Orleans (1815)
Andrew Jackson led pirates, free blacks, militia
Forced British to surrender New Orleans and honor Treaty of Ghent
Who Wins the War of 1812?
First steps to independence
Westward Expansion continues
Part III: Side Effects of Expansion
Widespread Indian Removal to clear land
Mass westward migration of whites ("Americans")
"Roads" created for travel
~kept people connected to East
"Era of Good Feelings"
James Monroe worked toward national unity
Ideas of econ. development.
Created a national bank
Est. import tax for manufacturers
National system of roads and canals
Corporate funding of "infrastructure"
Infrastructure: basic structures needed for operation of society. (roads, bridges, RR, telecommunications, sewer system, etc.
Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams
Monroe's Secretary of State
Fixed border between U.S. and Canada
Resolved conflicting U.S./British claims on Oregon
Got Spain to cede Florida & LA Territory claims
U.S. closed to further European expansion
U.S. would not get involved in European conflicts
*btw...the U.S. lacks military force to back this up.
aka: Political Truce
Expansions and Limitations of Suffrage
1820: All white men could vote
(regardless of property)
Political opportunities for women, free blacks, and Indians shrink
Andrew Jackson and the "Age of the Common Man"
Responded to changes in society due to:
challenges to Federalism
changes in suffrage
Rise of 2-party political system
Power struggles, 'spoils system,' and tarrifs (oh my!)
...oh and then there's the Indians...
5 Civilized Tribes:
Adopted white ways of dress, religion, language, social practices, etc.
Response to Attempts at Civilization:
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi legislatures invalidate all treaties with tribes
Cherokee Nation sued federal government
Gov't can't take your land.
I do what I want.
xoxo Supreme Court
Indian Removal Act of 1830
State officials can override federal protection of Native American land
Native Americans must cede ALL land and move West of Mississippi River
Those not moving would be removed with force.
*Supreme Court rules unconstitutional.
*Jackson defies ruling. Only time in history.
Native American Responses
Seminoles: Fought back until moved
Choctaws: Voluntarily left '30
Creeks: Forcibly moved '36
Chickasaws: Forcibly moved '37
Cherokee: Fought in court; Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
Cherokee forced to give up home EAST of the Mississippi and move to present-day Oklahoma
Migrants faced hunger, disease, exposure, exhaustion
1/4 Cherokee die
Sauk and Fox fight Federal troops for tribal land rights.
Survivors forced West of Mississippi
Social Reform Movements
Source: Collection of the New York Historical Society, Negative #34684
Canals and Steamboats
The Express Train, by Currier and Ives, 1849
Effects of the Transportation Revolution
Power driven machinery RULZ!
It's all about that Capital!
Capital (def): wealth owned or employed in a business.
How do you get/use capital?
What counts as capital?
Immigration and the City
The Growth of Cities
Patterns of Immigration
Immigration key to urban growth
Start of immigration rise: 1830
(mostly in the North)
Most immigrants are Irish and German
Consequence of Rise in Immigration:
poor living conditions
Chinese in California
New Living Patterns
Immigration transformed urban life
Gap between rich and poor grows
New challenges: Infrastructure
(skin color, religion, ethnicity)
Competition b/n free blacks & Irish for:
rights of citizens
Racism based on:
Ethnicity in Urban Popular Culture
Irish immigrants face job/cultural discrimination
Minstrel shows (Jim Crow) reinforce white prejudice
Urban riots reinforce attitudes toward Irish
No...this kind of labor
Increased decline in social and economic status of workers
Workers' Associations and trade unions established
Political parties tried to control w/immigrant support
Why are social reforms a side effect of expansion?
"Middle Class" response to Market Rev.
Religious reformers seek 'moral perfection'
~goodness of people + morality = reform
Use political & social activities to promote reform.
Homer, Winslow. The Country School (1871)
saw children as 'innocents needing gentle nurturing
made public school compulsory
Women seen as more nurturing
~first real career opportunity for women
Sought to eliminate consumption of alcohol
Alcoholism sent poor families deeper into poverty
High crime and domestic violence rates
Panic of 1837 pushed working/middle class to join
By mid-1840s, alcohol consumption cut in half
Moral Reform, Asylums, Prisons
Charities for poor women (prevent prostitution)
Tougher criminal penalties
Asylum Movement by Dorothea Dix -->
Prisons aimed at reform rather than punishment
Antislavery and Abolition
Early Women's Rights Movements
Part IV: Manifest Destiny
African Americans Against Slavery
1820-1830: Free blacks in North organize 50+ anti-slavery societies
Some call for slave resistance
1831 Nat Turner's Rebellion
William Lloyd Garrison
denounced compromise on slavery
immediate emancipation for moral reasons
American Anti-Slavery Society
Propaganda campaign against southern states
Abolitionists frequently attacked. One killed
Abolitionism and Politics
National Political Issue!
Petitions for abolition in D.C.
Congressional "Gag Rule"
Created to table abolition petitions in Congress; repealed 1844
Amistad & John Quincy Adams
Topic of abolition splinters along racial and political lines
Sentimentalism leads to concern with morality.
Period of 'intellectual reassurance written from:
Henry David Thoreau
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Emphasized individualism and communion with nature
Peacefully challenge laws you feel are immoral
Women loudest proponents of anti-slavery movement
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Women's Rights Movement officially starts
Historical Context Time!
What were our motivations for 'Manifest Destiny' in:
The Oregon Trail
Westward Expansion and Indian Policy
Battle for the Republic of Texas...
From the 20th Century Jim Crow era in South Texas, but the same premise existed in the 19th Century
James K. Polk
Marching toward war...
My how we've grown!
Politics of Manifest Destiny
"Steamboat Willie." Not a real steamboat captain.
(When I'm done talking, zoom in on those images below!)
I've been there!
Xenophobia is a hatred for foreigners/immigrants
Political cartoon displaying impact of racism on Chinese
Ignore that sign below. You should stop taking notes. Like right now. DO NOT click forward. Your chromebook might explode.
Sound intentionally missing
Sound intentionally missing
Manifest Destiny (defined)
The idea that Americans were destined, by God, to govern the North American continent.
White Americans had the duty to bring the ideas of democracy to "backward people."
Westward Moving Communities
Continued encroachment on Indian lands.
Fed. gov't. continues to side with whites.