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Unit 6: Westward Expansion (1803-1850s)

Honors History
by

Michele Goostree

on 17 November 2016

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Transcript of Unit 6: Westward Expansion (1803-1850s)

Westward Expansion
1803-1850s

Part I: Early Expansion
Broad topic.
What are we learning???
Part II: Expansion & Imperialism
Part III: Side-Effects of Expansion
Part IV: Manifest Destiny
(biggest section!)
I smell
opportunity
"Help me,
I'm poor."
Louisiana Purchase
Land purchase from Napoleon/France
Mississippi River to Rocky Mts.
Doubled size of U.S. for $15 million
Problem: President can't purchase land
First use of "elastic clause"
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Purpose:
~explore new territory
~find water route to Pacific Ocean
Results of L & C Expedition
Scientific and agricultural discovery
Est. diplomatic relations with Indians
Detailed maps; used by later groups
Set path for westward expansion
Cycle of Expansion led to...
~near extinction of buffalo; plants
~moving Indians to reservations
Part 1: Early Expansion
A Tiny Reminder About Treaty of Paris (1783)
British and U.S. are to share Mississippi River
After Louisiana Purchase:
U.S. wants to trade with Britain AND France
British Navy begins impressment of sailors
Impressment
Forcing men into military service
What's the Problem?
They're taking American "citizens"
"But I wanted to be an imperialist power!"
Response to
Impressment
Jefferson's Embargo
(1807)
Suspend trade with Britain AND France
All American ships ordered to stay in port.
Intention: Britain and France see U.S. as neutral
(end impressment; open trade)
Failure of Jefferson's Embargo?
France began impressment of U.S. ships
British developed new markets for goods.
Non-Intercourse Act
(1809)
Repeal Embargo
Open foreign trade to all EXCEPT France and Britain
Impossible to enforce
Part II:
Expansion
&
Imperialism

Main Causes of War of 1812
(American Perspective)
Continued British attacks on American ships; impressment
Great Britain restricted rights to trade
Orders of Council: Limited U.S. trade with France
More Causes...
Native Americans push back against Expansion
~support British
POLITICS!
Who do we support? Great Britain or France?
Republican
(Democrats)
Pro-British
vs.
Federalists
Pro-France
3 Phases of War
1.
U.S. forces invade English forts in Canada
2.
Washington D.C./Chesapeake/Baltimore
3.
"Southern"
Campaign
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
You mad, bro?
British end trade restrictions (Orders of Council)
British troops ordered to leave U.S. frontier
All land held prior to war restored
Battle of New Orleans (1815)
Andrew Jackson led pirates, free blacks, militia
Forced British to surrender New Orleans and honor Treaty of Ghent
Who Wins the War of 1812?
Who Cares?
Who Loses?
NO ONE.
Canadians!
First steps to independence
Indians!
Westward Expansion continues
Part III: Side Effects of Expansion
Westward Surge
Peace =
Widespread Indian Removal to clear land
Mass westward migration of whites ("Americans")
"Roads" created for travel
~kept people connected to East
"Era of Good Feelings"
James Monroe worked toward national unity
American System:
Ideas of econ. development.
Created a national bank
Est. import tax for manufacturers
National system of roads and canals
Corporate funding of "infrastructure"
Infrastructure: basic structures needed for operation of society. (roads, bridges, RR, telecommunications, sewer system, etc.
Diplomacy of John Quincy Adams
Monroe's Secretary of State
Fixed border between U.S. and Canada
Resolved conflicting U.S./British claims on Oregon
Got Spain to cede Florida & LA Territory claims
Monroe Doctrine!
U.S. closed to further European expansion
U.S. would not get involved in European conflicts
*btw...the U.S. lacks military force to back this up.
aka: Political Truce
Expansions and Limitations of Suffrage
1820: All white men could vote
(regardless of property)
Political opportunities for women, free blacks, and Indians shrink
Andrew Jackson and the "Age of the Common Man"
Responded to changes in society due to:
Westward Expansion
challenges to Federalism
changes in suffrage
Rise of 2-party political system
Power struggles, 'spoils system,' and tarrifs (oh my!)
...oh and then there's the Indians...
Indian Removal
Who's Affected?
5 Civilized Tribes:
Cherokees
Chickasaws
Chocktaws
Creeks
Seminoles

"Civilized"?
Adopted white ways of dress, religion, language, social practices, etc.
Response to Attempts at Civilization:
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi legislatures invalidate all treaties with tribes
Cherokee Nation sued federal government
Gov't can't take your land.
Meh.
I do what I want.
xoxo Supreme Court
Indian Removal Act of 1830
State officials can override federal protection of Native American land
Native Americans must cede ALL land and move West of Mississippi River
Those not moving would be removed with force.
*Supreme Court rules unconstitutional.
*Jackson defies ruling. Only time in history.
Native American Responses
Seminoles: Fought back until moved
Choctaws: Voluntarily left '30
Creeks: Forcibly moved '36
Chickasaws: Forcibly moved '37
Cherokee: Fought in court; Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears (1838-1839)
Cherokee forced to give up home EAST of the Mississippi and move to present-day Oklahoma
Migrants faced hunger, disease, exposure, exhaustion
1/4 Cherokee die
BUT WAIT!
THERE'S MORE!
Sauk and Fox fight Federal troops for tribal land rights.
Survivors forced West of Mississippi
Revolution(s)!
Market Revolution
Industrial Revolution
Urban Problems
Social Reform Movements
Transportation
(1800-1840)
Source: Collection of the New York Historical Society, Negative #34684
Roads!
Canals and Steamboats
Railroads!
The Express Train, by Currier and Ives, 1849
Effects of the Transportation Revolution
Power driven machinery RULZ!
It's all about that Capital!
Capital (def): wealth owned or employed in a business.
How do you get/use capital?
What counts as capital?
Lowell Mills
Immigration and the City
The Growth of Cities
Patterns of Immigration
Immigration key to urban growth
Start of immigration rise: 1830
(mostly in the North)
Most immigrants are Irish and German
Consequence of Rise in Immigration:
Social challenges
poverty
poor living conditions
malnourishment
xenophobia
Irish Immigration
German Immigration
Chinese in California
Ethnic Neighborhoods
By 1872
New Orleans
New Living Patterns
Immigration transformed urban life
Gap between rich and poor grows
New challenges: Infrastructure
water
sewage
garbage
Residential segregation
(skin color, religion, ethnicity)
Competition b/n free blacks & Irish for:
dwellings
jobs
rights of citizens
Racism based on:
Skin color
Ethnic origins
Ethnicity in Urban Popular Culture
Irish immigrants face job/cultural discrimination
Minstrel shows (Jim Crow) reinforce white prejudice
Gang Warfare
Urban riots reinforce attitudes toward Irish
Labor Movements
No...this kind of labor
Increased decline in social and economic status of workers
Workers' Associations and trade unions established
Political parties tried to control w/immigrant support
Why are social reforms a side effect of expansion?
"Middle Class" response to Market Rev.
Religious reformers seek 'moral perfection'
~goodness of people + morality = reform
Use political & social activities to promote reform.
Homer, Winslow. The Country School (1871)
Education reformers:
saw children as 'innocents needing gentle nurturing
made public school compulsory
Women seen as more nurturing
~first real career opportunity for women
Temperance Movement
Sought to eliminate consumption of alcohol
Alcoholism sent poor families deeper into poverty
High crime and domestic violence rates
Panic of 1837 pushed working/middle class to join
By mid-1840s, alcohol consumption cut in half
Moral Reform, Asylums, Prisons
Charities for poor women (prevent prostitution)
Tougher criminal penalties
Asylum Movement by Dorothea Dix -->
Prisons aimed at reform rather than punishment
Antislavery and Abolition
Transcendentalism
Early Women's Rights Movements
Part IV: Manifest Destiny
African Americans Against Slavery
1820-1830: Free blacks in North organize 50+ anti-slavery societies
Some call for slave resistance
1831 Nat Turner's Rebellion
White Abolitionists
William Lloyd Garrison
denounced compromise on slavery
immediate emancipation for moral reasons
American Anti-Slavery Society
Propaganda campaign against southern states
Abolitionists frequently attacked. One killed
Abolitionism and Politics
National Political Issue!
Petitions for abolition in D.C.
Congressional "Gag Rule"
Created to table abolition petitions in Congress; repealed 1844
Amistad & John Quincy Adams
Topic of abolition splinters along racial and political lines
*MRS. GOOSTREE...NETFLIX!!!
Sentimentalism leads to concern with morality.
Period of 'intellectual reassurance written from:
Henry David Thoreau
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Margaret Fuller
Emphasized individualism and communion with nature
Civil Disobedience
Peacefully challenge laws you feel are immoral
vs.
Women loudest proponents of anti-slavery movement
(Grimke sisters...)
Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
Women's Rights Movement officially starts
Historical Context Time!
What were our motivations for 'Manifest Destiny' in:
1492?
1776?
1812?
1840s?
Overland Trail
The Oregon Trail
Westward Expansion and Indian Policy
Oh Texas...
Welcome, Americans?
Battle for the Republic of Texas...
From the 20th Century Jim Crow era in South Texas, but the same premise existed in the 19th Century
1835-1845
James K. Polk
(President)
Marching toward war...
Mexican-American War
My how we've grown!
Politics of Manifest Destiny
Welcome, Americans!
"Steamboat Willie." Not a real steamboat captain.
(When I'm done talking, zoom in on those images below!)
I've been there!
Xenophobia is a hatred for foreigners/immigrants
Political cartoon displaying impact of racism on Chinese
Ignore that sign below. You should stop taking notes. Like right now. DO NOT click forward. Your chromebook might explode.
Sound intentionally missing
Sound intentionally missing
Full transcript