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Rise of Civilization

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Melissa Hall

on 21 November 2011

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Transcript of Rise of Civilization

How did civilization develop prior to 300 C.E.? What is a civilization? organized
government Civilizations need order in
the form of councils of
elders of powerful
governments Intricate
religions People tried to understand
the world around them by
believing in Gods and morals. Individual
professions Different jobs are available for
people with different skills. Social classes Everyone has a role in society.
People's status are based on
the jobs they have. Priests
and rulers are at the top of the
social class system, while
slaves are at the bottom. Art and
Architecture Cultures are represented by
the things they create. Pottery
was created in Mesopotamia
while silk was made in China. Public Projects Civilizations need public projects
such as roads and bridges. Writing Writing is necessary for
communication. Scribes were
used to keep records Greece Not only were people surviving in the world, they were exploring the world, like many Greek philosphers including Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle Socrates Socrates taught people
to queston things. He spent
lots of time challenging people
about their beliefs. He taught
civilization to question and improve
things rather than to just
accept them. In his time however,
he was viewed as a threat
and was senteced to death. Plato Plato was a student of
Socrates. His book, The Republic,
explored the idea of a perfect
society. Plato believed in
government authority and social
classes of workers, soldiers, and
philosophers to make life
run smoothly. Aristotle Aristotle was a student of Plato. He studied many forms of government and concluded that he believed a single ruler would be best. He also thought about how people should live, the "golden mean". Monarchy Neolithic It started in 10000 B.C.E. and was the last period
of the Stone Age, called the New Stone Age.l Aristocracy It was one of the first villages in history
and lead to the beginning of civilization. Rule by a hereditary landholding elite. Oligarchy In an oligarchy, the people that
have the power are in the hands
of the small, wealthy elite. A government in which
a hereditary ruler exercises
central power. Agriculture caused people to stay in one
place for a long period of time. Democracy Government
by the People THE GReekS useD mANY DIFFeRENT
FORMS OF GOVERNMENT People settled in areas with fertile soil, an
abundance of water, and a mild climate. It spread from the Middle East and the Nile Valley
to the rest of Africa and India. Artwork, religion, and social statuses were
brought up, characteristics necessary
for a civilization. People started to farm and make their
own food, other than hunting and
gathering. New tools were made to make
the tasks of farming and cooking easier. Alexander the Great Indus A group of nomads that started Indian civilization, religion and the caste system. Aryans



Mesopotamia
Sumerian Inventions The world's first civilization in Mesopotamia
was Sumer.The Sumerians invented
many new things. Wheeled Vehicles
Plow
Calendar
Irrigation System
Earliest known writing called Cuneiform
Scholars developed astronmy and mathmatics Mesopotamian Empires! Babylon Laws governed the empire Became one of the largest and most highly regarded in Mesopotamia Persia Controlled by Hammurabi who brought peace Respected the customs of the diverse groups in their empire New ideas like money economy and using coins set up a bureaucracy (system of government) Hammurabi The ruler of Babylon Published a set of lawns know as Hammurabi's Code. The Sections include civil law and criminal law. Many civilizations followed and added to his rules. Another way Hammurabi contributed is he improved the system of irrigation, ordered many temples to be repaired and organized a hard-working army. Fertile Crescent An area of the Middle East named for its rich soils and
golden wheat fields It became a crossroad where people and ideas met and talked
Each new group that arrived made its own input to the history of the region Mohenjo-Daro an ancient Indus civilization. Its size and complexity advanced the Indus civilization. Its ruins still stand today. HINDUISM a religion developed in the Indus The Vedas is the Hindu sacred text. Hindu beliefs....
many gods
reincarnation
Karma (fate)
Ahimsa (nonviolence)
Dharma (religious and moral duties)
each person has an atman (essential self)
the goal of life is to acheive moksha (union with the god Brahman

Jainism is a religion that came from Hindu ideas. ASOKA Chandragupta Maurya started the first empire in India. His grandson Asoka was the most honored emperor who ruled well. Asoka fought to conquer land, but felt remorse for all who had died and converted to Buddhism where he practiced nonviolence and avoided further conquests. The strongest leader of ancient times. Alexander was a Macedonian whose father, Philip II, conquered Greece. Alexander also conquered Persia and spread Greek culture. He tried to take Inda, but his soldiers tired of the endless battles. Alexander died early, but his legacy lived on as Greek culture spread across the world. He also encouraged the blending of cultures. Alexander married a Persan woman. Greece flourished during the Golden, or Axis age. The empre was prospering financially, socially, economically, and culturallly. China 3 Chinese Dynasties DYANSTY: Series of rulers from the same families. Shang Armies were made up of aristocrats of about 4,00 troops using bronze weapons. Religion was animistic with ancestor worship. They were masters of bronze metal. Political, econimic, social and religious power belonged to the king who lived in a fortified city. Chou/ Zhou A less civilized dynasty and based on wars against Shang rulers and taxes. Used many cultural traits of the Shang dynasty (writing, religion). Complex writing using pictograph on bones. Had social divisons. Religions: Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism were developed. Used the idea of a Mandate of Heaven. Mandate of Heaven This idea meant that the gods approved their right to rule. This is how they overthrew the Shang dynasty. The Shang were bad rulers, so Chou took over. This idea survived until the 1900's Chin/Qin All power was to the emperor. It was the first Unified empire. There was a very organized central government There was a unified writing system. They built a highway system which made better control of the empire. A system based on Legalism. Started (and completed) building the Great Wall of China. Legalism Legalism was based on the teachings of Hanfeizi. People thought that humans were selfish and evil. Rulers extremely liked Legalism. It insisted that the only way to attaini order was to pass some strict laws and impose harsh punishments for crimes. Great Wall of China The Great Wall is a 25-foot high mountainous wall that got worked on by hundreds and thousands of laborers for many years. It was built to keep invaders out. The laborers (peasants) dumped millions of tons of rubble for the inside part of the wall. The Great Wall is an important symbol to the Chinese people. Han Once the new emperor takes control from the Chin emperor the empire starts to expand. The government managed 60 million people. There many jobs available, but you had to take tests to be employed. Jobs mostly only went to educated and wealthy people. They built the Silk Road. Silk Road The Silk Road was a network of trade routes opened by the emperor Wudi that would link China and the West for a very long time. Many new goods came into China from western Asia. China sent large quantities of silk westward. People began to... -Farm
-Cook
-Create new tools
-Make pottery
-Make other artwork
-Trade Ideograms Form of writing used in Eastern Languages. Words aren't spelled with letters but represented by a picture or symbol. Instead of... -Hunting and gathering as nomads Figured out a calendar that is the same as the one we use today, just slightly changed. The Dynastic cycle continued and this is why Chinese civilization has lasted so long. Rome The legion Conquered... -the Etruscans -Southern Greek city-states -well trained military unit of about 5,000 men -the soldiers were rewarded for good work and
punished for fleeing battle, sometimes by death -they let the conquered enemy keep their
own government, money, and customs -built all-weather military roads linking different territories
to Rome causing trade and travel to increase Julius Caesar -a determined military leader who
was very powerful in Roman politics -captured many regions but his army was disbanded -he rebelled and snuck off with army to
conquer more land -he forced the government to make him dictator and he became the ruler of Rome -he was assassinated so that he would
not become even more powerful He helped the people by... -dealing with the problems of the people -launching public buildings for the jobless -giving land to the poor -granting citizenship to the poor -creating the "Julian" calendar, used in
parts of Europe for 1,600 years Augustus -was called the Exalted One -he built a stable government His government... -allowed a lot of self government
-had a civil service to enforce laws -ordered a census to make the taxes more fair -set up a postal service -allowed high level jobs to be created -functioned well for 200 years -allowed the unemployed to get jobs such as building roads or temples Aqueducts -bridge-like stone structures that carried
water from the hills tp the Roman cities -the Romans with more money had
their water piped into their homes -most cities had public baths where
people went to bathe and socialize Global Perspective In china, there is tours that take you along the silk road. There is a 12 day ancient trip, 14 day great south trip, 18 day silk road trip and 23 day classic ancient trip. "There are four excellences in the city: justice, which is tending your own business, wisdom, temperance, and courage.
-Plato, from The Republic http://s0.geograph.org.uk/geophotos/02/40/89/2408905_d8b41976.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/54/184724635_6592ea1006.jpg http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2553/3920533954_8eafa4d1cd.jpg http://s0.geograph.org.uk/photos/72/32/723290_a069f9a3.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/142/318302211_3367bf9b5d.jpg http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1135/867011131_c2b5465ed4.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/36/82490561_a059a71157.jpg "Experience is the teacher of all things." http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2171/2286623670_7f8f074bd8.jpg http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2662/3683608535_2e9aac8cdf.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/ooocha/2588815450/ "I found Rome a city of
bricks and left it a
city of marble." "If liberty and equality, as is thought by some are chiefly to be found in democracy, they will be best attained when all persons alike share in the government to the utmost."
-Aristotle "The only good is knowledge and the only evil is ignorance."
-Socrates "How great are the dangers I face to win a good name in Athens."
-Alexander the Great http://s0.geograph.org.uk/photos/85/22/852293_f1e4c8e0.jpg http://farm1.static.flickr.com/38/99246560_96e621453b.jpg http://farm6.static.flickr.com/5220/5495637271_38afa305d4.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/mckaysavage/1059789198/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4047/4631537553_54f1e17861.jpg http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_sA_hdLZwb6w/S3UJwRDt9jI/AAAAAAAABr0/2YorE4quxfI/s400/egypt+one.jpg http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3219/2295355354_e65354babd.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/tonynetone/2511707733/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3607/4561740260_8c0582f865.jpg http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-2398839197-hd.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/croweb/2836991287/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-2932388283-hd.jpg http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/31f7e941-4271-46fc-b6a8-9cf3cc9dae2b-hd.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/mansionwb/3585091647/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3162/3083507763_b4814f6664.jpg http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-3115912933-hd.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/soham_pablo/2251562747/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://farm5.static.flickr.com/4107/4966891828_368638992d.jpg http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2670/3943363340_404905b9fb.jpg http://www.flickr.com/photos/renaissancechambara/6070883232/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/hlkljgk/3002212253/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/25652913@N03/4874697279/sizes/m/in/photostream/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/jburgin/3004831429/sizes/m/in/photostream/ http://www.flickr.com/photos/jdfalk/544413415/
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