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Diabetes: Effect and Treatment

Sankara Eye Hospital- Volunteering Project...Special thanks to Valsama &Jeeva Aunty, Dr. Anandi, Bhuvana Aunty, and Chandra Aunty
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on 30 July 2013

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Transcript of Diabetes: Effect and Treatment

Diabetes: Effect and Treatment
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes' Connection to the Eye
Sankara Eye Hospital and Diabetes
Sankara Eye Hospital Coimbatore treats diabetes
Patients are frequently referred to this hospital's lab for testing
Non-paying patients are checked for diabetes before getting surgery
Patients have a package in which their blood is tested for diseases, as well as their glucose levels.
Operations are not advised if the glucose levels are above normal
My Project
I've spent my time at Sankara working in the lab, talking to patients about diabetes: gathering information and using it to create this presentation based on what patients said
Treatments
Treatments normally include:
insulin injections
adjusting the diet
exercising (being active!)
checking blood glucose levels periodically
Diabetes is a disease in which the body's blood glucose levels (blood sugar levels) are higher than normal.
In a normal body, these levels are regulated by a hormone called insulin; in a body with diabetes insulin cannot maintain the blood sugar levels.
There are three types of diabetes: Type I, Type II, and gestational diabetes

Type I Diabetes
Type I diabetes is less common than type II diabetes
Patients with type I diabetes cannot produce insulin, thus their blood glucose levels are unmaintained.
As a result these patients must take insulin injections, usually for the rest of their lives
Type II Diabetes
In type II diabetes, the more common form of diabetes, the patient develops a resistance to insulin
The pancreas does produce insulin, but the rest of the body does not respond to the hormone
By taking insulin injections, making healthy dietary choices, and being physically fit patients can reduce the effects of diabetes on their body (this applies to type I diabetes as well)
Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is found in pregnant women
It usually occurs during the late stages of pregnancy
The cause is the low levels of insulin and hormones present in the mother's body during the pregnancy
Most of the time gestational diabetes goes away after giving birth
However, these women are more at risk to develop type II diabetes later on
It is important to follow doctors' instructions about the treatment and the changes that they suggest about your lifestyle.
Please come for a regular follow-up with your doctor as well.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Works Cited
Rodgers, Griffin P. . United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Your Guide to Diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Bethesda: National Institution of Health, 2012. Web. <http://www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov/dm/pubs/type1and2/index.asp&xgt;.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011.

United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basics About Diabetes. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012. Web. <http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/learn.htm>.

United States. National Institutes of Health. Facts About Diabetic Retinopathy. 2012. Web. <http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/diabetic/retinopathy.asp>.
Symptoms include:
Frequent urination
Excessive thirst
Unexplained weight loss
Extreme hunger
Sudden vision changes
Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
Tiredness
Very dry skin
Sores that are slow to heal
More infections than usual
("Basics About Diabetes")
Suggested Foods to Eat
The blood glucose levels can affect the eyes' performance.
"Diabetes is the leading cause of new cases of blindness among adults aged 20–74 years. " (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
"In 2005–2008, 4.2 million (28.5%) people with diabetes aged 40 years or older had diabetic retinopathy, and of these, 655,000 (4.4% of those with diabetes) had advanced diabetic retinopathy that could lead to severe vision loss." (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
There are several eye diseases caused by diabetes
What is Diabetic Retinopathy?
What is Glaucoma?
What is a Cataract?
Diabetic retinopathy is the most common eye disease caused by diabetes, and may lead to blindness.
Diabetic retinopathy is caused by abnormalities in the retina's blood vessels.
The retina's blood vessels can become leaky, or unusual blood vessels can grow on the surface of the retina
"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
The retina is the tissue in the eye that takes in the light. A properly functioning retina is crucial for good vision.
A cataract is when the lens of the eye becomes opaque, or "cloudy".
Patients with diabetes are at risk of developing cataracts at an earlier age than non-diabetic patients.
The lens refracts (bends) the light so it hits the retina at the right angle. When the lens becomes opaque (cloudy), it no longer can bend the light, and vision is obstructed.
By: Damini Chelladurai
Glaucoma is the increase in the fluid pressure in the eyes
This damages the optic nerve and can lead to vision loss.
Diabetic patients are much more likely than non-diabetic patients to develop glaucoma
The optic nerve carries information to and from the brain.
"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
All patients with diabetes are at risk for diabetic retinopathy
It is suggested that those with diabetes take a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year
Patients can develop diabetic retinopathy without any symptoms
Early detection is key for improvement
By keeping blood sugar levels as close as possible to a non-diabetic patient's level will reduce the risk of diabetic retinopathy

"Courtesy: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health (NEI/NIH)."
Overall, diabetic patients should maintain a diet high in nutrients, low in fat, and moderate amount of calories, and regulate the amount of carbohydrates taken in. It is also suggested that you keep a food diary.
Try eating brown rice or wild rice instead of white rice, limit the amount of refined carbohydrates you eat.
A good food to have as a snack is cucumber
Don't skip breakfast!
Try to eat the same amount of food everyday, and try to cut down on sugar intake, and eat at the right time
Surgery Package
Paying patients who are getting an eye surgery, take a blood test as part of the package
Tests include: HIV, HCV, HAV, HbsAG, hep. B, hep. C, sugar, blood pressure, hemoglobin
They also take a urine test and a ECG reading
It is advised to postpone eye surgery if blood glucose levels are higher than normal.
Patients are given a sheet of paper (in Tamil) that lists out what to eat, how much of it, and when; it also shows what not to eat
Complications
There are several long term complications of diabetes that result when it is poorly controlled
Kidney
The kidney's functions may fail (renal failure)
There also may be an increase in proteins passed out in urine (proteinuria)
Both of which are serious conditions
Heart
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are at a greater risk for heart attack.
Furthermore, they can experience something called "Silent Heart Attack"
Because of a loss of pain they cannot feel that they are having a heart attack and cannot get treated
Brain
Diabetic patients are more at risk for strokes

Nerves
Uncontrolled diabetes can affect the nerves, most likely the peripheral nerves
Reflexes may disappear, and tingling sensations occur in the fingers and toes
Feet
Feet are very likely to be affected by diabetes, due to poor circulation and peripheral neuropathy.
These ailments can lead to gangrene and eventual loss of foot
Gangrene is the death of tissue usually resulting from the loss of circulation
Over all information
Gender
Age Brackets
Ailments
Full transcript