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3 estates of French Revolution for European History
Transcript of 3 estates of French Revolution for European History
1789–1799 Le premier domaine Le second état Le tiers état The first estate consisted of the clergy and priests. The second estate consisted of the aristocracy and the nobility The third estate consisted of farmers, peasants, laborers, doctors, lawyers, and artisans The first estate usually didn't work, paid no taxes, and lived luxurious lives. These people did not pay taxes either; only in wartime were they expected to, but it was not enforced. This estate did all the work They made most of the goods the other estates needed, but received little to no benefits They did not have equal representation in government They had no influence in voting whatsoever. They were the ones paying all the heavy taxes set by the king. Without the influence of all three estates, the French Revolution may have not ever happened. The third estate, of course, had the best reason for revolution. These people were the ones who took action first. The other two classes saw nothing wrong with the way things were and stayed comfortably in their place. The Roman Catholic clergy represented 1% of the population, and owned 15% of the land. Second estate represented 2% of the population, and owned 25% of the land. The third estate represented 97% of the population and owned 65% of the land. Elections were ordered in 1788. On May 5, 1789, the States-General met at Versailles for the first time since 1614. Each of the estates presented their problems to the crown.
It was clear many reforms were expected from the States-General; political and social. Deputies of the third estate proclaimed themselves as the National Assembly on June 17 as Louis XVI wavered. Members of lower clergy and nobility joined them. The king had the National Assembly's meeting place (Versailles) closed, so they met at an indoor tennis court (jeu de paume), where they took an oath not to disband until a constitution had been written (June 20). The king legalized the National Assembly on June 27 At the same time, though, the king surrounded the Versailles with troops and let himself be persuaded by a court faction. Storming of the Bastille On 11 July, 1789, Necker was fired after publishing inaccurate accounts of the government's debts to the public. This action was assumed to be aimed against the Assembly, and there was fear that oncoming soldiers sought to shut down the Assembly. At their meeting place, the Assembly went into session and riots broke out all over Paris. The mob set toward the weapons in the Bastille fortress, and the prison fell that afternoon. The King backed down, Marquis de la Fayette took up command of the National Guard, and Jean-Sylvain Bailly (president of the Assembly during the Oath) became the city's mayor. On 26 August 1789, the Assembly published the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which listed a set of principles instead of a constitution that had legal effect. The Assembly functioned as a legislature and as a constituent assembly (a group made to draft or adopt a constitution). Works Cited "The Three Estates of the Feudal System of France During the French Revolution." All Articles RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://history.knoji.com/the-three-estates-of-the-feudal-system-of-france-during-the-french-revolution/>.
Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/history/french-revolution-the-estates-general-national-assembly.html>.
"The French Revolution - The Three Estates." The French Revolution - The Three Estates. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.slideshare.net/cems7ss/the-french-revolution-the-three-estates>.
"Origins of the French Revolution." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 02 Dec. 2012. <http://www.history.com/videos/origins-of-the-french-revolution>.