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Elements of Three Dimensional Design

Launching the Imagination

3D Design

on 3 February 2015

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Transcript of Elements of Three Dimensional Design


Elements of Three-Dimensional Design

The physical manifestation of an idea.
three dimensionality itself
Form & Function
A form must fulfill a certain function. In order for it to be successful it must not only be aesthetically pleasing but all parts must work together effectively and efficiently.
Orthographic Projection
Degrees of Dimensionality
Relief // When working in relief, the artist uses a flat backing (such as a wall or ceiling) as a base for 3D forms.

Three- Quarter Works // More dimensional, can see front and sides.

Freestanding Works // Seen from all sides. In -the - round
“The combination of tangible material and aesthetic complexity gives sculpture a unique power. Like an alchemist, the sculptor transforms ordinary materials into conceptual gold.”
Environmental Works
Environmental work: A space that can be physically entered.

An ensemble of images and objects that are presented within a three-dimensional environment. Can become physically and emotionally involved in the artwork.
Examples. Art Galleries, Museums

A large-scale outdoor installation, can expand over great distances.

Site Specific:
Artwork specifically designed and installed in a particular place

-A series of adjacent points
-A connection between points
-A point in motion
Line Quality




Actual Lines

Implied Lines
Degrees of Harmony
Color & Emotion
Striking Surface
Ambient light
encompasses an entire space or setting.
There are many types of
light as sculpture
. Such as neon tubes, lighting fixtures, or illuminated signs. Projection and containment are common ways to creating sculptural light.
Direct light
is localized and focused (like a spotlight on a singer).
each line has its own distinctive quality. This quality is largely determined by the line's orientation, direction, and degree of continuity, as well as the material used.
refers to the horizontal, vertical, or diagonal position of the line
refers to the implied movement of a line
(linear flow), can increase movement and accentuate form
through their physical presence, actual lines can connect, define, or divide a design
a line that is not directly drawn out, it is a mental line. a line that we make in our heads to connect things.
Sight Line
Something that at first seems plane, then when one further examines it they discover that it is dynamic.
Types of Form
Volume Mass
an empty form a solid form

Positive forms
(area of substance) w/ negative space
Organic form
- a naturally occurring form
Geometric form
- basic shapes such as spheres or cubes
Static forms
- forms that appear to be unmoving
Dynamic forms
- forms that imply movement
Kinetic forms
- forms that actually move.
>Texture can be utilized to contrast different elements, and to add character and depth. It enriches our overall understanding of the composition
Degrees of texture may be subtle or pronounced.
>Texture may also enhance or confuse our interpretation.
The area within or around an
area of substance
The white vase shows great textural changes and also maintains a strong visual stimulant.
Other factors play a part in the degree of texture such as mass, volume, color, and material.
Robert Henri
Jonathan Latiano
The amount of space an object occupies.
In three-dimensional design, volume refers to an enclosed area of three-dimensional space.
~Weaving, folding, and slotting are a few of the strategies artists and designers use when creating volume (if the structure fails, the volume will collapse and the space will be lost)

- Polyhedral volumes are surprisingly strong
Ambient & Direct Light
Value & Volume
Variations in light & dark
Good lighting can enhance the VOLUME of a form
Light as Sculpture
A three-dimensional form that has length and width but minimal thickness.
-Depending on the material used, planes can be transparent or opaque, rigid or flexible.

-Planar construction
Intersecting Planes can create large-scale structures (Calder), structural integrety is especially important.
Positive Space /
Negative Space
Paying attention to the interaction of negative and positive space results in dynamic form.

The interrelationship between space and substance is demonstrated in every area of three-dimensional design.
space that is compressed
space that is expanded and stretched out
Activated Space:
space that is used to activate an emotion or message.
Entering Space:
space created to allow the viewer to enter the design.
HUE- Color
Value-Lightness or darkness of color
Intensity/Saturation-Purity of color
Temperature- psychological feelings of color WARM vs. COOL
Orthographic projections depict a three dimensional form on a two dimensional surface. Unlike perspective drawings that rely on a vanishing point, orthographic projects use a series of parallel lines to define detail.
-A pleasing relationship between colors
-Clashing colors can involve certain emotions
Contrast allows for distinguishing of
-differences between color, shading,
refracts or bends
light bounces back
can be mysterious or evocative
-Certain colors invoke
various emotions in the
-Ex: Red= Hot, Courage,
Colors, like features,
follow the changes
of the emotions.
- Pablo Picasso
Symbolic color
- it culturally based.
-EX: yellow-> light, life, truth,
and immortality to Hindus.
blue-> (faith and truth-Egyptians)
(rain and sky- Tlaloc )
Jean Tinguely, Chaos 1

Todd Slaughter,
Mano y Bola,
steel, alum; Hand - 27' x 40' x 5', Ball - 20’ dia., 1997
Commissioned by the City of Algeciras, Spain, La Mano y La Bola is positioned on El Cabrito Ridge between Algeciras and Tarifa, Spain, overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar. The two sides of the Hand are made of 1100 movable panels, when activated by a 10 m.p.h. breeze, swing out. The “Ball” rotates at 5 r.p.m., powered by wind.
(A Volume that looks like a Mass)
Anish Kapoor,
The Bean
, Chicago, IL

Orthographic Projection
Degrees of Dimensionality:


Robert Longo
Corporate Wars

Robert Longo,
Corporate Wars
, 1982, cast aluminum

Robert Smithson
Spiral Jetty
Great Salt Lake, Utah

Robert Smithson
Spiral Jetty
Great Salt Lake, Utah

(Kinetic Form)
Reuben Margolin,
Double Raindrop
, 2007, wood, lead, steel cable, electric motors, 8' diameter
Reuben Margolin
Janine Antoni,
, 1992, install. with chocolate & lard
Rachael Whiteread,
, 2010, dimensions variable
Rachael Whiteread,
, 2010, dimensions variable
Colossal Head, 1300-800 B.C. Stone, Mexico, Olmec culture, Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, approx. 11x 10 x10 feet.
Richard Serra, Betwix the Torus and the Sphere, 2001. Weathered steel, approx. 10 x 37 x 26 ft.
Creates a sense of spatial compression.
A solid three-dimensional form.
Walter de Maria, The Lightening Field, 1977. Stainless steel poles, ave. height 20 ft, overall 1 square mile. 400 poles. Near Quemado, New Mexico.
Installation is clearly defined and yet wonderfully expansive in the interaction it invites with it's environment.
Anish Kapoor, Cloud Gate, 006. Millenium Park, Chicago. Stainless Steel, 66 x 42 x 33 ft.
An activated space in an artwork can be contemplative, agitated, or even threatening. Some sculptures are designed to be entered physically or mentally.
David Mach,
, 1997. Coat hangers, 2x 1x 2ft
Planar construction

Auguste Rodin,
The Kiss,
1889, Marble
Alexander Calder, La Grande Vitesse, 1969. Painted steel plate, 45x55 ft, Grand Rapids, MI
Maya Lin,
Blue Lake Pass
(detail), 2006. Duraflake particle board, 20 blocks approx 5 x 17 x 22 ft
David Smith, Cubi XXVII, 1965, Stainless Steel, approx. 11 x8 x3 ft.
The 10 geometric volumes are activated by the void/ open space they enclose.
Every object occupies a position in time and space.

-Actual time
-Implied time suggests a duration
-Viewing time
-Actual & implied motion
Nancy Holt, Sun Tunnels, 1973-76. Great Basin Desert, UT, 4 tunnels c. 18 ft long, 9 ft dia. Aligned with runrise and sunsets on the solstices.
(Light as Sculpture)
Robert Irwin,
Part II: Excursus: Homage to the Square
, 1998. Installation at Dia Center for the Arts, New York.
Cast shadows further expand expressive potential. Ruth Asawa's suspended organic forms seem to float through the silent space. Spotlights illuminate the sculpture and create mysterious cast shadows.
Degrees of texture may be subtle or pronounced.
Maria Montoya and Julian Martinez, Blackware storage jar, 1942. Hopi, from San Ildelfonso Pueblo, 18 x 22 inches
Eva Hesse,
Accession II
, 1968, galvanized steel and vinyl, 30 3/4 x 30 3/4 x 30 3/4 in., Detroit Institute of Arts
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