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Photography - Using the camera

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Sophie Sveinsson

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Photography - Using the camera

What do we need to consider when taking pictures?
Exposure
Movement
Composition
Lighting
Colour
Flash
Studio
Rule of thirds
Composition
F Stops
ISO
Lenses
Rule Of Thirds
Manual
Focus
Automatic
Macro
Rule of thirds PP
Rule of thirds
Practice
Symmetry
Knowing Your Camera
Photography
Depth of Field
How Your camera Works
Photography
History and Application
How is photography used?
Digital Manipulation of Images
Doctoring photographs has been around almost as long as photography itself, but as digital imaging hardware and software has both advanced and come down in price, the practice of digital image manipulation has become much more commonplace and faked photos are becoming harder to detect. In fact, digital photo manipulation -- commonly referred to as 'photoshopping' -- has recently become a popular pastime, and many consider this photographic fakery to be a new art form.
APPLE QUICK TAKE 100 .1994.  The first mass-market color digital camera.  640 x 480 pixel CCD.  Up to eight 640 x 480 resolution images could be stored in internal memory
In 1986, Kodak scientists invented the world's first megapixel sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels that could produce a 5x7-inch digital photo-quality print.
Digital Photography
Digital camera technology is directly related to and evolved from the same technology that recorded television images.
In 1900, Eastman took mass-market photography one step further with the Brownie, a simple and very inexpensive box camera that introduced the concept of the snapshot. The Brownie was extremely popular and various models remained on sale until the 1960s.
The development of faster cameras in the 1870s spurred scientists and others to use photography in the study of human and animal movement. In 1878 Muybridge used a series of photographs of a galloping horse to demonstrate to the world that the animal lifts all four feet off the ground at once.
Daguerreotypes
First daguerreotype
Niépce died in 1833, but Daguerre continued the work, eventually culminating with the development of the daguerreotype in 1839, reducing the exposure time down to half an hour.
Working in conjunction with Louis Daguerre, they experimented with silver compounds based on a Johann Heinrich Schultz discovery in 1724 that a silver and chalk mixture darkens when exposed to light.
Nicéphore Niépce's earliest surviving photograph, c. 1826. This image required an eight-hour exposure, which resulted in sunlight being visible on both sides of the buildings.
Photography as a useable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photograph was an image produced in 1826 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce. However, the picture took eight hours to expose, so he went about trying to find a new process.
During the Victorian era many seaside resorts had a camera obscura which was usually set up in a small octagonal building near the beach or on the pier. Inside, the visitor could watch a moving colour picture of the view outside.
Light from only one part of a scene will pass through the hole and strike a specific part of the back wall. The projection is made on paper on which an artist can then copy the image if desired.
the camera obscura is based on a simple principle. If you go into a dark room (thus the name, the Latin camera, "room", and obscura, "dark") and punch a small hole in the wall, the image outside will be projected inside.
The principle of the camera obscura can be demonstrated with a rudimentary type, just a box with a hole in one side.
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes who coined the phrase ‘Mirror with a Memory’
To mid-19th-century observers, photography seemed capable of capturing the world whole rather than describing and interpreting it as drawing did. They called it the “mirror with a memory.”
But 20th-century critics have argued whether photography is indeed a direct trace of experience, like the mark of a footprint in the sand, or instead a reflection of the photographer’s particular point of view.
Many specialised commercial categories, including fashion, product, and architectural photography, also fit under the broad umbrella that defines photography’s function in the world today….
and in space
views of far-off places on Earth
and of glamorisation..
they provide a means of identification…
photography
the history of
Today, the technology is massively advanced, with high res cameras even incorporated as commonplace in mobile phones
35mm
All this soon changed as a result of two important introductions: the simple-to-use Kodak camera and the halftone printing process.
As photography celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1889, the average person was familiar with what photographs looked like and probably kept some at home, but few people took photographs themselves. In addition, most photographs existed as unique originals, because copies were still difficult to make.
People were by far the most common photographic subject of the 19th century. Photographic portraits were much less expensive than painted ones, took less of the sitter’s time, and described individual faces with uncanny accuracy. So great was the sense of presence in these pictures that photographers were often called on to take portraits of the recently deceased, a genre now known as postmortem portraits.
The low-cost daguerreotype became so popular that, by the end of 1839, Paris newspapers were referring to a new disease called Daguerreotypomania.
as well as microscopic scenes from inside and outside the human body
inform us of public events
preserve personal memories
photographs..
camera obscura
the camera obscura developed out of the simple, lens-less 'pinhole camera' which was used, perhaps a 1,000 years ago, to project an image of the sun and safely view eclipses. The incorporation of a lens in the seventeenth century (or maybe even earlier) produced a much brighter image and the camera obscura, as we know it today, was born.
Complete your timeline...
How do I Use Photography?
Use images to create a mood board about how YOU consume photographs and use photography
FB
Camera
Mags
Posters
music inlays
Phone
Memories
Great Photos
Knowing what you like...
Research 6 interesting images of your favorite band/ singer.
Write about why you like it.
Choose images that you can talk about
Produce digital moodboard/ sketchbook

colour
framing
fashion/makeup
set
pose
narrative
Camera obscure
Daguerreotype
The Brownie Camera
The Horse In Motion
Joseph Nicephore Niepce
Henry Fox
Colour Photography
Digital Photography
Frederick Scoff Archer
Go out and take 10 pictures using the rule of third method.
Take into consideration your background and edges.
Comeback, print and put in sketchbook, explain your methods.
Task
Draw out a doodle of the following:

Landscape
A person doing something
An object in the foreground
Anything you want
Task
Composition: Angles
Before you hit the shutter button, take note of everything in the photo — not just the subject.

Avoid distracting objects
Check the edges of the frame
The lines themselves are guide by which to divide parts of the frame between area of tone or contrast such as a horizon in the case of landscape photography.
If you imagine your frame divided in thirds both horizontally and vertically you will end up with an image something like this. The points at which the lines cross over are points at which to place an influential or dominant element within and image such as an eye in the case of portraiture or a key object within a landscape in the case of landscape photography.
The Rule of Thirds:
Composition
You can dramatically change the feel of an image or an interpretation of a message within an image by changing the focal length, crop of angle at which you shoo the subject.
Overhead sun creates dark eye sockets and unattractive shadows, which can be reduced by using a flash. Use fill-in flash also for situations where the subject is backlit (camera auto exposure will be confused)
Principle 3
Use fill-in flash, for backlit situations or overhead sun.
Light
Use side lighting as much as possible, even moving your subject, if necessary, next to a window.
The use of frontal flash lighting tends to flatten faces.
Principle 2
Side Lighting instead of front or overhead (noon-time) lighting
Light
The indiscriminate blast of flash destroys the intimate mood of existing light
Principle 1
Avoid using flash, even for night shots
Light
Wide-angle lenses allow more of a picture to be captured (need focal point) while telephoto lenses tighten the scene and isolate the subject (but affect the depth of field & increase camera shake)
Principle
Wide Angle (35mm) or Telephoto (70mm)
Lens
ISO settings are often rated at 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, and even 3200 on some models
Use an ISO of 100 or 200 when taking photographs outside in sunny conditions.
If the sky is overcast or it is evening time, or in a darkened room, then use an ISO within the range of 400 to 800.
Night time or in cases of low light you might need to set your digital camera ISO to 1600. If not your photo will appear too dark, if at all.
ISO: General Rules and tips
Absolutely sharp images are not always the best. They can look static and dull. At slow shutter speeds the camera blurs the image of moving objects, and can create a more convincing image of movement.
Principle
Freezing motion (achieve the desired effect)
Shutter Speed
To capture blur-free "action" photographs (e.g. Sports), you need to make sure the camera is using a high shutter speed, e.g.1/125th of a second or more.
Less light gets through to the imager as shutter speed is increased, thus difficult to use higher shutter speeds in lower light situations.
Alternatives: Allow more light to pass through the lens (larger aperture setting), the other is to increase the ISO
Shutter speed: General Rules and tips
A larger lens opening (f1.8-3.5) offers the following advantages:
Allows you to shoot more often with just natural lighting  helps to reduce harsh shadows and red-eye caused by flash.
Allows more light to pass through, the camera will be able to choose a slightly higher shutter speed  helps to reduce motion blur.
Helps to reduce "depth-of-field“ (for effect).
Aperture: General Rules and tips
Aperture
Shutter speed
ISO
Exposure
Create impact by photographing your subjects from unexpected angles. Imagine yourself as an electron spinning around the subject, which is the nucleus of an atom
Principle 4
Dramatic Perspective
Composition
unless it’s a reflection
The center of the frame is the weakest place -- it's static, dull, and gives no value to the context. The more you move the subject away from the center, the more relevance you give to the context
Principle 2
Put subject off-centre / Rule of thirds
Composition
A good photograph is a subject, a context, and nothing else. Remove any clutter that detracts from your message. Get closer -- zoom in -- and crop as tightly as possible
Principle 1
Un-clutter the picture. Zoom in.
Composition
C omposition
E xposure
L ens
L ight
C . E . L . L .
Know your camera
Hold the camera still
The 2-second rule
Take a few more
Tell a “story”
Capture the “mood”
The 6 Things To Know
Basic Photography
ISO 3200
ISO 100
ISO measures the sensitivity of the image sensor. The lower the number the less sensitive your camera is to light and the finer the grain.
Principle
Set the lowest setting possible to avoid noise
ISO Setting
Create impact by using frames and real or inferred lines that lead the viewer's eye into and around the picture
Principle 3
Use of frames, lines & diagonals
Composition
When shooting a landscape, as much of the photograph in sharp focus as possible (f11 to f22). In a portrait, shallower dof (f2.8-8) will isolate your subject from distracting backgrounds
Principle
Affect depth of field (range of distance in focus)
Aperture
Practical Task
Put your camera onto manual and practice with the settings
Similarities to art…
Sarah Lucas
Message:
your project could inform the viewer about a specific theme or topic that you feel strongly about.
Robert Mapplethorpe
Bernice Abbott
Adrian Ensor
Form:
some fine art photography concentrates on themes like form. Using the photograph to emphasise human form, natural forms or made forms.
What is Fine Art Photography?
Fine Art Photography
Use objects and places to capture the emotion of a person…..
Misha Gordon
A Russian Surreal Photographer. All of the following images are done using tradition methods of darkroom photography, but add a modern twist to the portrait.
The Contemporary Surreal Portrait
Thomas Florschuetz
Shock value:
A lot of fine art photography is about shocking the viewer. It will have a message or issues that make the people looking at it feel a bit uncomfortable.
Philip Lorca DiCorcia
Personal:
Your project should be of great interest to you. Almost an obsession. Whether you’re interested in flowers or people’s faces your photographs should capture everything you love about the subject.
Man Ray
Experimental:
Surreal objects and composition can create a strange, interesting world. This could show a particular emotion or feeling.
Ansel Adams
Edward Weston
Robert Mapplethorpe
Photojournalists do shoot some nouns.
Photojournalists shoot action verbs ("kicks," "explodes," "cries," etc.)
Photographers take pictures of nouns (people, places and things)
A photojournalist uses pictures instead of words to tell a story. They can also accompany their images with some text to elaborate on the details or events.
WHAT IS A PHOTOJOURNALIST?
GAZA STRIP, JERUSALEM
The images in a photojournalism piece may be accompanied with explanatory text, or shown independently, with the images themselves narrating the events they depict
DHARAVI SLUM, MUMBAI
the images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level.
Narrative
POST-ELECTION PROTEST, IRAN
the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone
SOLDIERS AFGHANISTAN WAR
the images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events.
Timeliness
Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (such as documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by the qualities of:
However, the nouns we seek still must tell a story.
What makes a photojournalist different from a photographer?
Fine Art
Documentary Photography
Try to avoid posed photos. No Snapshots!
Try to capture emotion.
Photograph faces not backs.
Let your picture tell the story.
Use different angles and perspectives.
Avoid inanimate objects. Focus on people.
Don’t forget the Rule of Thirds.
The Decisive Moment
TIPS
5 MINUTE PORTRAIT
ENVIRONMENTAL
PORTRAITURE
http://silberstudios.tv/videos/conflict-zone-photos-teru-kuwayama
Uses semi functional Polaroids and toy camera (its the photographer not the camera that makes the photo)
Looks for the counter narrative
Has compassion for his subjects/ topics
DOCUMENTARY/ TERU KUWAYAMA
NOT AFRAID TO BE WHAT YOU ARE PHOTOGRAPHING
LOOKING FOR STORIES THAT HAVEN’T BEEN TOLD
LOOKING FOR WHAT OTHERS DON’T SEE…
CALCUTTA, INDIA
BORN INTO BROTHELS
SERIES FOR LIFE MAGAZINE IN RIO DE JANEIRO, 1961
FLAVIO DE SILVA, BRAZIL
BECAUSE OF HIM, LAWS WERE CHANGED
AMERICAN PHOTOGRAPHER
LEWIS HINES
PHOTOJOURNALISTS CHANGING
LIVES
1. ANTICIPATION
2. TIMING
3. COMPOSITION
EVENTS, EMOTIONS, EVERY LITTLE BIT OF INFORMATION
WORLD PRESS PHOTO OF THE YEAR
SHOUTING PROTESTS FROM ROOFTOPS, IRAN
However, the nouns we seek still must tell a story.
Photojournalists do shoot some nouns.
Photojournalists shoot action verbs ("kicks," "explodes," "cries," etc.)
Photographers take pictures of nouns (people, places and things)
What makes a photojournalist different from a photographer?
A photojournalist uses pictures instead of words to tell a story. They can also accompany their images with some text to elaborate on the details or events.
WHAT IS A PHOTOJOURNALIST?
DHARAVI SLUM, MUMBAI
the images combine with other news elements to make facts relatable to the viewer or reader on a cultural level.
Narrative
SOLDIERS AFGHANISTAN WAR
the images have meaning in the context of a recently published record of events.
Timeliness
Photojournalism is distinguished from other close branches of photography (such as documentary photography, street photography or celebrity photography) by the qualities of:
THE PHOTO TELLS A COMPLETE STORY IN AN IMAGE
the timely reporting of events at the local, provincial, national and international levels. Relevant.
JOURNALISM
Photojournalism is a particular form of journalism (the collecting, editing, and presenting of news material for publication or broadcast) that creates images in order to tell a story..
WHAT IS PHOTOJOURNALISM?
Documentary Photography
5 SECOND PORTRAIT
Visualize each shot of the story, or simply walk through the venue/place/event in your mind, you will want to think about the type of shots that will work best to tell your story.
5. PLAN YOUR SHOTS
Joy. Fear. Hurt. Excitement. The best way you can connect your photo essay with its audience is to draw out the emotions within the story and utilize them in your shots. This does not mean that you manipulate your audience’s emotions. You merely use emotion as a connecting point
4. Every dynamic story is built on a set of core values and emotions that touch the heart of its audience

After your research, you can determine the angle you want to take your story. The main factors of each story create an incredibly unique story.
3. FIND THE “REAL STORY”
For example, if you document a newborn’s first month, spend time with the family. Discover who the parents are, what culture they are from, whether they are upper or lower class. These factors will help you in planning out the type of shots you set up for your story.
2. DO YOUR RESEARCH
AMERICAN GOTHIC, HARLEM
AMERICAN PHOTOJOURNALIST
GORDON PARKS
BAZILIAN PHOTOJOURNALIST
SEBASTIAO SALGADO
Henri Cartier-Bresson
The Decisive Moment
Jacob Riis

Steve Mccurry

Diane Arbus
Danny Lyon

Susan Meiselas

James Nachtwey

Sebastião Salgado

W. Eugene Smith

Peter Turnley

Gordon Parks

Lewis Hines
Eddie Adams
Mathew Brady
Robert Capa
Henri Cartier-Bresson
Walker Evans
Lauren Greenfield
Ed Kashi
André Kertész
PHOTOJOURNALISTS
DOCUMENTING THE ANTARTIC
GAZA STRIP, JERUSALEM
The images in a photojournalism piece may be accompanied with explanatory text, or shown independently, with the images themselves narrating the events they depict
POST-ELECTION PROTEST, IRAN
the situation implied by the images is a fair and accurate representation of the events they depict in both content and tone
SUN
ARTIFICIAL
REFLECTION
GLOW
FEELING THE LIGHT
EXPOSED CHILD LABOR PRACTICES
SLR Recap
ISAF
ISO
SHUTTER SPEED
APERATURE
FOCUS
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