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The American Common School Period 1840-1880
Transcript of The American Common School Period 1840-1880
*At the beginning of the 1840's most children were educated at home or in small country schoolhouses, where one teacher taught all grades
*Teachers in small country schoolhouses were paid by community members and salaries were low
*Horace Mann's impact led to teachers who were better prepared to teach
*Individuals who intended to be teachers in normal schools had to take a test to show that they were properly educated
*As a result there was more expectations of teacher knowledge and teaching abilities. Horace Mann
*Worked to establish free public education
*The first state supported schools were called common
*Tried to improve standardized schools
*One of the keys to this was establishing normal schools for teacher training
*Successfully advocated the establishments of free libraries School Curriculum ~Continued to teach basics a long with Christian principles and citizenship
~ Students learned Greek, Roman, English History and now American History McGuffey Readers ~In 1836 over 120 million copies were sold by the McGuffey Readers
In 1840 -1880 there was a German man named Horace Mann who was influential in the education world and had an emphasis on letter sounds
~Another one was Pestalozzi, with object teaching- whole word methods African American Education ~EDUCATING AFRICAN AMERICAN WAS NOT A PRIORITY.
~THE SOUTH PART OF THE COUNTRY HAD LAWS AGAINGST EDUCATING AFRICAN AMERICAN IN ORDER TO PROTECT THE INSITUTION OF SLAVERY.
~MANY AFRICAN AMERICAN GOT EDUCATION FROM THEIR CHURCHES.
~AFRICAN AMERICAN STARTED BUILDING THEIR OWN SCHOOLS.
~DURING THE MID CENTURY:
THERE WAS SCARCITY OF SUPPLIES IN AFRICAN AMERICAN SCHOOLS.
THEY WEREN’T ABLE TO FIND JOBS BECAUSE OF DISCRIMINATION.
~AS A RESULT, YOUNG AFRICAN AMERICAN WERE DISCOURAGED AND DID NOT TEMPT TO ATTEND COLLEGE OR OTHER COURSES.
~ONLY A FEW AFRICAN AMERICAN ATTENDED SCHOOL AND BECAME SUCCESSFUL.
~THE CENTURY ENDED WITH THE INTEGRATION OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS. The American Common School Period 1840-1880 Kindergarten ~Was first established for less fortunate children and children with mental physical handicaps
~Kindergarten in the U.S. did not appear until 1856, and it was in Wisconsin ~Normal schools were established to provide systematic training of teachers.
~Their goal was to prepare them for work at a level beyond the simple grammar school education.
~The first state-sponsored Normal School was established in Lexington, Massachusetts in 1839.
~Education courses increasingly moved into regular colleges and universities.
~The impact of Normal Schools was enormous. The Morrill Act
~The Land-Grant College Act of 1862, or the Morrill Act, was a legislation enacted by the United States Congress to assist states in financing colleges that would specialize in “agriculture and the mechanic arts,” meaning agriculture, engineering and military science. ~It did this, initially by making grants of land to states. The states were to sell the land and use the funds generated to establish the new colleges. The congressman who authored this act was Justin Morrrill.
~The Morrill Act was first introduced into Congress in 1857 in response to a political movement. Colleges of the early 19th century traditionally taught classical studies, and the general sciences rather than practical or applied fields of interest. The Morrill Act was passed by Congress in 1859,but President James Buchanan vetoed it. ~Horrace Mann proposed a system of free universal and
~Each district would provide a school for all children regardless of religion or social class.
~Private schools had to pay tuition and the new schools would be funded by taxes and special fees payed by parents.
~The new schools would instill a common political and social philosophy of sound republican principals. Education During the American Common School Period ~Reformers had agitated to make schools more democratic, universal, and non-sectarian.
~Schools needed not only more teachers but better teachers.
~Promising young men continued to be siphoned off by more prestigious professions, new industries, and the lure of the western frontier. http://www.readingnaacp.org/book_education_19thcentury.html
http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/timeline.html Works Cited