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Transcript of Cell Transportation
Glucose (C6H12O2) Facilitated Diffusion
Ions Special Transport
Large Solids (starch, etc) Phagocytosis
Large Liquids (oils) Pinocytosis
Hormones Receptor-Mediated Summary Vesicles are small membrane-bound macromolecules of the cell and carry materials between organelles in the cell.
Cells can use vesicles to transport large particles across the plasma membrane.
Both exocytosis and endocytosis are types of vesicular transport. Vesicular Transport Endocytosis
(endo = inside, cyto = cell)
Capture of substances outside the cell when the plasma membrane merges to engulf it.
***There are three types of endocytosis
3. receptor-mediated Ions are atoms with either a positive or negative electrical charge…. their electron number is not equal to their proton number.
Some, not all, ions need to be transported by
Simply put….during Special Transport, ions are captured by surface proteins and pushed’ or pulled, into the cell…. Because they are forced, the ions can flow, if necessary, against the concentration gradient.... The ions can even flow through like electrical charges on the plasma membrane. Special Transport Types of Active Transport are:
a.) Special Transport
d.) Receptor-mediated Active Transport
*Solutes flow against the concentration gradient.
* The cell uses energy….ATP.
*Requires Transport Proteins Temperature – the faster the molecules move, the faster they diffuse… the slower the molecules move, the slower they diffuse.
Pressure – as you increase, or decrease pressure…. You can affect the rate and direction of flow.
Concentration – the larger the population of solutes, the greater the chance of random access through a membrane. Factors which affect the rate of
Passive Transport Osmotic Pressure
If there are solute molecules only in one side of the system, then the pressure that stops the flow of the solutes is called the
osmotic pressure. ** In an Isotonic solution, the concentration of solutes outside and inside the cell are equal.
** Under these conditions, water diffuses into and out of the cell at equal rates, so there is NO Net Movement of Water.
Isotonic Environment All living cells must be surrounded by Water.
These water environments are classified as by the concentration of solutes in the solution. The environments are classified as:
3. Or, Hypotonic Osmosis
The Diffusion of water across a membrane Diffusion is the flow of substances from an area, or region, of greater molecular concentration to an area, or region, of lesser molecular concentration. The overall direction of the movement is referred to as the Gradient. Molecules usually move “down the concentration gradient”..... flow from high concentration to low concentration. Eventually a state of “equilibrium” is reached where molecules are uniformly distributed but continue to move randomly. Simple Diffusion The 3 most common types of Passive Transport are:
3. Facilitated Diffusion Passive Transport
Solutes flow down the concentration gradient.
* The cell does not use any energy. The Plasma Membrane is semi-permeable
( also referred as “selectively permeable” ).
A selectively permeable membrane allows the passage of some materials in or out of a cell, and restricts the passage of some materials in or out of the cell. Semi- Permeability Temperature is defined as the average transitional velocity (speed) of the molecules in a system.
An increase in temperature is actually an increase in the speed of the molecules…. @ 70 degrees Fahrenheit air molecules are traveling at 1,500 mph
All molecules exhibit some kind of motion. Therefore, all molecules have temperature.
Absolute Zero – temperature at which all motion stops…absolute zero is
-459 Fahrenheit…. Welcome to Bruno’s world!! How Temperature affects the motion of molecules How things get in and out of Cells Cell Transportation Pinocytosis occurs when dissolved materials enter a cell. The plasma membrane folds inward to form a channel allowing the liquid to enter. The plasma membrane closes off the channel, encircling the liquid inside a vesicle. Oils enter cells through pinocytosis Pinocytosis
(pino = to drink, cyto = cell) Process of vesicles fusing with the plasma membrane and releasing their content to the outside of the cell. Exocytosis
(exo = outside, Cyto = cell)
moving substances outside the cell Internal pressure applied to a cell wall when water moves by osmosis out of the cell. The pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall.
Plasmolysis is the loss of Turgor Pressure… therefore the cell collapses. Turgor Pressure The diffusion of solutes across a selectively permeable membrane. The term dialysis is usually used when different solutes are separated by a selectively permeable membrane. Dialysis The diffusion of solutes through channel proteins in the plasma membrane. Glucose moves in and out of cells through facilitated diffusion. Facilitated Diffusion Active Transport
* Movement of solutes against a concentration gradient.
* Requires that the cell use energy. Passive Transport
* Materials flow down the concentration gradient.
* The cell does not use any energy. 2 Types of Cell Transportation The movement of some materials is referred to as “Bulk Flow”. Bulk flow is the collective movement of substances in the same direction in response to a force or pressure.
Blood moving through a blood vessel is “bulk flow”. Bulk Flow Phagocytosis occurs when undissolved solids enter a cell. The plasma membrane wraps around the solid material and engulfs it, forming a vesicle. Phagocytic cells, such as white blood cells, attack and engulf bacteria in the manner. Phagocytosis
(phago = to eat, cyto = cell) Area Force Force (push) exerted on a surface as it is bombarded by moving particles.
The amount of pressure can be determined using the following formula:
Pressure = Pressure 97% Water
3% solute 95% Water
5% solute Concentration of solutes is greater outside the cell than inside the cell.
Water will move outside the cell… the cell will shrink and die. Hypertonic Environment Salt + Water Saltwater The Dissolver Substance to be dissolved Cells are filled and surrounded by many solutions. Solutions are composed of solutes and a solvent.
Solute + Solvent Solution Solutions Oxygen Flow Diffusion of substances between two regions in which substances are moving by bulk flow in opposite directions. Countercurrent Exchange Plasmolyzed Cells Normal cells Movement of water out of a cell that results in the collapse of the cell, especially in plant cells with central water vacuoles. Plasmolysis 95% Water
5% solute 97% Water
3% solute Concentration of solutes is greater inside the cell than outside the cell.
Water will move inside the cell… the cell will swell, or burst, and die. Hypotonic Environment Direction of Diffusion
Down the Concentration Gradient Low Concentration of solutes High Concentration of solutes Simple Diffusion Molecule being ingested Receptor Protein Ligand Occurs when specific molecules bind to specialized “receptors” (proteins) in the plasma membrane. The membrane, the receptors, and the specific molecules, called ligands, fold inward forming vesicles. Hormones target special “target cells” by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis Short hair-like surface extensions found found on the outside of the cell are called Cilia.
Cilia often cover the surface of some cells and can aid in movement or keeping an area clean by a sweeping action.
Examples include cilia found within the respiratory system, female reproductive tract and cilia that cover the bodies of some microscopic pond organisms. Learning Guide (Page 22) After completing the test move onto Unit #5 http://www.cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm
http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/Histo/HistoImages/hl3-03.jpg Works Cited One advantage of electron microscopes over light microscopes is their
-size -two-dimensional image -higher magnification –use of live specimens
When a cell is ready to reproduce, its DNA is packed into (use page 64)
- chromosomes -chromatin -nucleoli -nucleoids
The scientist who first described living cells as seen through a simple microscope was.
-van Leeuwenhoek -Schleiden -Hooke -Schwann
Each of the following is a main idea of the cell theory except
-all organisms are composed of cells
-the cell is the basic unit of organization of organisms
-all cells are similar in structure and function
-all cells come from preexisting cells
A plasma membrane is made up of a(n)
-cholesterol layer -enzyme bilayer -phospholipid bilayer -protein layer Conclusion Guide (Page 8) Practice Assessment #6: Understanding Concepts Part A. Choose the letter of the word or phrase that best completes the statement.
Cell walls of multicellular plants are composed mainly of
-cellulose -chitin -pectin -vacuoles.
The terms least closely related to the others is
-cytoskeleton -microfilaments -microtubule -cell juncture
In a chloroplast, the stacks of membranous sacs are called
-stroma -grana -plastids -thylakoid membrane
The structure most responsible for maintaining cell homeostasis is the
-cytoplasm -mitochondrion -cell wall - plasma membrane
If a cell contains a nucleus, it must be a(n)
-plant cell -eukaryotic cell - animal cell - prokaryotic cell Conclusion Guide (Page 7) Practice Assessment #5: Vocabulary Review Part 2. Write the term in parentheses that makes each statement correct.
(Phospholipids, Transport proteins) make up the selectively permeable membrane that controls which molecules enter and leave the cell.
Short, hair like projections used for locomotion are (cilia, flagella).
In the cell the breakdown of molecules in order to release energy occurs in the (mitochondria, Golgi apparatus).
An organism with a cell that lacks a true nucleus is a(n) (prokaryote, eukaryote).
The movement of materials into and out of the cells is controlled by the (cytoplasm, plasma membrane).
The small, membrane-bound structures inside a cell are (chromatin, organelles).
In a cell, the sites of protein synthesis are the (ribosomes, nucleolus).
Cell structures that contain digestive enzymes are (plastids, lysosomes). Conclusion Guide (Page 6) 10.The stomach is an example of
a. a tissue.
b. an organ.
c. an organ system.
d. none of the above.
11. How have microscopes been helpful in the study of cell?
12. What limits the size of the cells?
13. Why is the cell membrane called a selectively permeable membrane?
14. Distinguish between the structure of rough ER and that of smooth ER.
15. What is the cell specialization? Give and example of cell specialization. Conclusion Guide (Page 4) 7. The nucleolus is
a. the control center of the cell.
b. the storehouse of genetic information.
c. the site where ribosomes are synthesized.
d. none of the above.
8. Plant cells differ from animal cells in having.
a. fluid-filled vacuoles.
b. cell walls surrounding the cell membrane.
d. all of the above.
a. synthesize proteins
b. store food.
c. synthesize pigments.
d. store pigments. Conclusion Guide (Page 3) Practice Assessment #3: Complete the follow questions on a separate sheet of paper and hand in to your teacher. Refer to your notes and chapter 4 in your text for assistance.
1. A prokaryote has
a.a cell nucleus.
b. a cell membrane.
d. all of the above.
2. The growth of cells is limited by the ratio between
a. volume and surface area.
b. organelles and surface area
c. organelles and cytoplasm.
d. nucleus and cytoplasm.
3. A cell membrane is composed of
c. nucleic acids.
d. lipids and proteins. Conclusion Guide (Page 1) Flowing in-between the organelles of the cell is a watery gel called Cytoplasm.
Cytoplasm is used for support and to help suspend the organelles within the cell.
It also assists in giving the cell some shape, due to fluid pressure known as turgor pressure. Learning Guide (Page 17) Practice Assessment #7: Understanding Concepts Part B. The diagram below of a bacterium shows a light area with no surrounding membrane in the center of the cell. This area contains a single large DNA molecule . Use the diagram to answer questions of the following slide. Conclusion Guide (Page 9) Practice Assessment #4: Reviewing Vocabulary. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement below.
A structure outside the plasma membrane in some cells is the ________.
The functions (command center) of a eukaryotic cell are managed by the ________.
In a cell, the tangles of long strands of DNA form the _______.
The folded system of membranes that forms a network of interconnected compartments inside the cell is called the ________.
The pigment that gives plants their green color is ________.
The network of very tiny rods and filaments that forms a framework for the cell is called the__________.
In plants, the structures that transform light energy into chemical energy are called ________. Conclusion Guide (Page 5) 4. The function of the Golgi apparatus is to
a. synthesize proteins
b. release energy
c. process and package proteins
d. synthesize lipids.
a. transport materials.
b. release energy.
c. make proteins.
d. control cell division.
6. Lysosomes function in cells to
a. recycle cell parts.
b. destroy disease causing agents.
c. shape developing body parts.
d. all of the above. Conclusion Guide (Page 2) The final section in this unit is dedicated to tissues.
Tissues are the result of specialized cells working together. If you have tissues working together they will form an organ and eventually organ systems.
The four tissues that make up the human body include, nerve tissue, muscle tissue, epithelial tissue, and connective tissue. Learning Guide (Page 29) Another protein-based organelle used in movement is the Microfilaments.
The microfilaments not only assist in movement but the microfilaments assist in development of the cells shape. Learning Guide (Page 25) Microtubules provide assistance in cell shape by creating a cytoskelton.
The Microtubules help in managing internal movement of organelles within the cell. Learning Guide (Page 24) Found on the outside of some cells is a long whip-like extension called a Flagellum.
Flagella provide the cell with locomotion/movement capabilities.
Examples include the whip-like tail on a sperm cell and the tail on a pond organism called a Euglena. Learning Guide (Page 23) The Vacuoles are the “warehouse” of the cell.
The Vacuoles not only hold water but may also hold food, pigment, and waste safely inside the cell.
Large vacuoles are a common feature found in plant cells.
Animal cells may only have small vacuoles.
They provide turgor pressure (fluid pressure) that stabilizes the plant cell. Learning Guide (Page 21) Centrioles are unique structures found only in animal cells.
The centrioles main function is to provide aid in the process of cell reproduction. Learning Guide (Page 20) The kidney-shaped organelles that can be found throughout the cells are called the Mitochondria. The mitochondria are often known as the “boiler room of the cell”.
The mitochondria produce energy by creating ATP (chemical energy). Mitochondria are often referred to as the respiration centers of the cell because they require oxygen to produce ATP.
The mitochondria will use carbohydrates and fats obtained in your diet in order to create this power for the cell.
Mitochondria will lose 58% of the food energy due to heat. Learning Guide (Page 16) Surrounding the Nucleus is the “conveyer belt” of the cell known as the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
The endoplasmic reticulum, found inside the cell is presented in two forms. The first form, the rough endoplasmic reticulum – has ribosomes on its surface (or Rough ER), assists in the transportation of protein within the cell. The second form, the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (or Smooth ER), lacks ribosomes. The Smooth ER’s job is to make enzymes and to detoxify waste material.
Both the Rough and Smooth ER attach to an organelle called the Golgi Body. Learning Guide (Page 14) Found throughout the cell are small spherical organelles called Ribosomes.
Ribosomes produce cell protein using your genetic code. Ribosomes are found primarily on the surface of the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Ribosomes could be considered the product manufactures within the “cell factory”. Learning Guide (Page 13) Within the nucleus is a spherical structure known as a nucleolus. The nucleolus produces ribosomes that are transported throughout the cell.
Make sure you study the individual organelles and their functions between the pages of 62 – 75. Learning Guide (Page 12) Inside the very center of the cell is the largest organelle in the animal cell. This organelle is called the Nucleus. This is the foreman or boss of the animal cell.
The nucleus contains the DNA (I.e. the cell’s blueprints), the chromosomes, and genetic information needed for the cell to reproduce and develop.
The nucleus also controls the cell’s other functions, as well as, its protein production.
The nucleus, like that of the cell membrane, is semipermeable. Learning Guide (Page 11) The outer skin of a animal cell is called the cell membrane or plasma membrane. The plasma membranes function (job) is to cover and contain the cell contents.
In addition, the plasma membrane is also semi-permeable which means the membrane allows some substances to enter into the cell while prohibiting other materials that may be too large or very harmful to the cell. Cell Membrane Cell Theory Created by: Jeff Wolf and Mike Graff and Diane Gresham Cell Theory
Cytoplasmic Organelles Cell Structure and Function Identify the structures labeled A, B, and D.
Based on the diagram above, would a scientist classify this cell as a prokaryote cell or a eukaryote? Explain.
In plants, cells that transport water against the force of gravity are found to contain many more mitochondria than do some other plant cells. What is the reason for this outcome?
Why did it take almost 200 years after Hooke discovered cells for the cell theory to be developed? Conclusion Guide (Page 10) Connective tissues found in cartilage. Connective tissues can also be found throughout the human body.
Examples of connective tissues are: ligaments, tendons, bone, cartilage, fat, and blood.
What do all of these types of connective tissues have in common.
With the exception of fat tissue all of these types of connective tissues have a large amount of material (intercellular material or matrix) separating their cells. Learning Guide (Page 34) Layered epithelial tissues. Epithelial tissues covers the entire body surface.
Epithelial tissues are both external and internal. A good example of a epithelial internal tissue is the surface layers of skin lining the digestive and respiratory systems.
As a protective covering, the epithelial tissue may absorb and/or secrete chemicals to and from the specific organ.
The cells contained within the epithelial tissue are so closely fused together that blood vessels cannot pass between them. Learning Guide (Page 33) Breakdown of a muscle tissue. Muscle tissue are a specialized group of cells that help in the movement of organs and appendages.
The three types of muscle tissues are:
The next slide will provide greater detail on muscles. Learning Guide (Page 31) Microtubules
Flagella Practice Assessment #2: Using the “cell factory” blueprint created in practice assessment #1, add the following organelles to your factory. Learning Guide (Page 28) The cell wall, the outer boundary or “factory wall” of the plant cell provides support and protection for all plant cells.
The cell wall has a rigid outer covering made of nondigestible cellulose.
Cell walls are made of the carbohydrate known as cellulose. Learning Guide (Page 26) The waste or “trash disposal system”of the cell is known as a Lysosome. Lysosomes digest food and worn out cell parts that are no longer used by the cell.
The Lysosomes are sometimes considered “Suicide Sacs” because they contain digestive enzymes to eliminate harmful bacteria and digest other materials and plays a role in waste disposal. Learning Guide (Page 18) The Golgi Body (also known as the Golgi apparatus) is found connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. The function of the golgi body is to modify and package cell products such as protein. Basically, the golgi body is the “packing and shipping center” of the cell. Learning Guide (Page 15) An example of a plant cell. Shortly after the discovery of the light microscope a scientist named Robert Hooke was the first to describe the shape of cells. In 1665, Hooke discovered that cells were located in a thin slice of cork taken from the bark of an oak tree.
By the mid-1800’s scientists began to find cells in every organism they investigated using a light microscope. This investigation produced the cell theory which states that all living things are composed of cells. Hooke Levels of Organization Plant Cell Follow the instructions in the Anticipation Guide found in this PowerPoint Presentation.
Follow the instructions and answer all questions found in the Learning Guide.
Follow the instructions in the Conclusion Guide.
ALL THREE GUIDES CAN BE FOUND IN THIS LEARNING POWERPOINT QUEST. Directions An example of a nerve tissue. Neuron Nerve tissue are made up of individual cells called neurons.
These vital tissues specialize in transmitting information rapidly from one part of the body to another. Learning Guide (Page 30) Our final organelle, found only in plant cells are called plastids.
The plastids main function is to manufacture glucose, store food and pigments. They include the chloroplasts (food production), leucoplasts (food storage), and chromoplasts (provide pigmentation/color to the plant. Learning Guide (Page 27) Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R)
Lysosomes Cell Membrane
Ribosomes Practice Assessment #1 – Draw a blueprint of a factory. Place and describe how the following organelles would function within a “cell factory”. After completing this activity please turn it into your teacher. Learning Guide (Page 19) Prokaryotic Cells vs. Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells
Protists, plants, fungi, and animal cells.
Developed after the Prokaryotic cells.
Contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles.
Larger than Prokaryotic cells.
Considered to be more complex and better organized due to the presence of a nucleus. Prokaryotic Cells
Came before Eukaryotic cells.
Contains DNA but no nucleus and no membrane bound organelles.
Smaller than Eukaryotic cells.
Considered to be primitive or more simplistic than a Eukaryotic cell. Two Types of Cells An example of a eukaryotic cell. An example of a prokaryotic cell. Now that an explanation of cell investigation has been made let’s talk about the two major classes of cells.
The two major classes of cells are prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells. Two Types of Cells Human Red Blood Cells Demonstrate knowledge of the cell theory and the scientist who discovered it
Discover the structure of a cell and its organelles
Discover the important cellular functions
Discover the basic organization of cells a living organism Objectives: After completing this Prezi the student will… Cardiac Muscle
Cardiac muscle is found only in the heart. These striated muscles and their cells are capable of contracting spontaneously. This muscle is also striated and involuntary. Visceral Muscle
Visceral muscles are involuntary muscles that produce slow sustained contractions. These muscles can be stretched several times their original length without loss of their function. Visceral muscles are found in many tube-shaped body structures such as in the digestive system. Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles that produce rapid body movement. Most of the body consists of striated skeletal muscles Learning Guide (Page 32) Molcule Mode of Transportation