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Comparison on the basis of infrastructure: India and China
Transcript of Comparison on the basis of infrastructure: India and China
India & China Introduction Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures
needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities
necessary for an economy to function.
It is an important term for judging a country or region's development. What does 'infrastructure' mean? The term infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, , and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions." Types Of
Infrastructure Hard Infrastructure "Hard" infrastructure refers to the large physical networks necessary for the functioning of a modern industrial nation. It is limited to capital assets that serve the function of conveyance or channelling of people, vehicles, fluids, energy, or information, and which take the form either of a network or of a critical node used by vehicles, or used for the transmission of electro-magnetic waves. Examples Of Hard Infrastructure •Transportation infrastructure
•Water management infrastructure
•Solid waste management Soft Infrastructure Soft infrastructure includes both physical assets, non-physical assets as well as the systems and organizations by which highly skilled and specialized professionals are trained.The essence of soft infrastructure is the delivery of specialized services to people. Examples Of Soft Infrastructure Governance Infrastructure
Cultural, Sports & Recreation Infrastructure COMPARISON HARD INFRASTRUCTURE COMMUNICATION Telephones : 32.685 mn (10th worldwide)
Mobile Cellular: 893.862 mn (2nd worldwide)
Internet Users: 61.338 mn (6th worldwide)
No of total post offices : 1,54,866 , of which :
1,39,040 (89.78%) were in rural areas
15,826 (10.22 %) in urban areas.
There are over 515 channels of which 150 are pay channels.
the Indian cable industry is worth 270 billion (US$4.91 billion) and is the third largest in the world.
148 million homes have a television as of 2011. Telephones : 285.115 mn.
Mobile Cellular :986.253 mn (1st worldwide)
Internet users: 389 million (2009) (1st worldwide)
Postal offices and branches: 82,116
Computerized postal offices: 20,000
Altogether there are 3,000 television stations across the country.
Over two thirds of people in China have access to television. TRANSPORT WATER ENERGY SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE ECONOMIC GOVERNANCE SOCIAL SPORTS FUTURE PROJECTS According to recent estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to spend US$1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects over the next decade to boost economic growth, of which US$500 billion is budgeted to be spent during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan. FUN FACT #1 FUN FACT #2 The 1318 km Beijing-Shanghai high-speed rail link, the longest in the world, and constructed within three years at a cost of $33 bn, is just one in the long list of mega infrastructure projects that China has been executing. To just put this in perspective, the total outlay for India's flagship urban development program, the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, covering 64 largest cities in the country, including the metros, and spread over five years (2005-10) was slightly more than $20 bn. FUN FACT #3 The Bandra-Worli Sea Link (BWSL), built at a cost of Rs 1800 Cr (or ~$400 mn), several years behind schedule and with substantial cost over-runs, was greeted with much national rejoicing as further proof of our arrival as a big economic power. The Hangzhou Bay Bridge, the world's longest cross-sea bridge project, was built at a cost of $16 bn. Chinese GDP could overtake the U.S. as soon as the early 2020s. FUN FACT #4 As per ‘The Telegraph’, China gave the go-ahead for 60 infrastructure projects worth more than more than 1 trillion yuan (£100bn) . in a bid to revive economic growth, raising hopes that the world's second largest economy will drive a recovery across the globe. FUN FACT #6 China has 150% more soldiers than America does, plus a high tech 'Kill Weapon' the U.S. can't deal with. FUN FACT #5 RAILWAYS Total length :91,000 km (56,545 mi)
% electrified : 47%
Metro systems :Currently there are 15 rapid transit systems in mainland China. A further 18 systems are under construction and 20 more metros are planned.
International links : North Korea, Kazakhstan, Mongolia and Russia, and with Vietnam, Total length: 65,000 km (40,000 mi)
Metro systems: There are 4 metro systems which are already in use. Another 7 are either under construction or are still being planned out
International links: Pakistan, Bangladesh and Nepal. ROADWAYS Total: 3,320,410km
country comparison to the world: 3
Length of expressways:
Highways- 65% of freight and 80% passenger traffic
Bus rapid transport:
5 networks are already in use and 4 others are being planned out.
Other forms of road transport: Auto rickshaws & trams Total: 3,860,800 km
country comparison to the world: 2
Length of expressways:
Highways- 13.5% of cargo and 49.1% of passengers
Bus rapid transport:
More than 30 projects are being implemented or studied in China in some big cities.
Other forms of road transport:
Trolley buses & electric cycles AVIATION Total no. of airports- 497 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 14
Paved- total: 452
Unpaved- total: 45
Airlines -33 Total no. of airports: 352 (2012)
Country comparison to the world: 22
Unpaved- total: 101
Airlines- 20 WATERWAYS China has 110,000 kilometers of navigable
Construction of new railways and highways has diminished the utility of China's rivers for passenger transport.
Nonetheless, passenger boats are still popular in some mountainous regions, where railways are few and road access to many towns is inconvenient. The total navigable length is 14,500 kilometers (9,000 mi)
Water transport is still very important in a few regions in India. There are 5 national waterways type of govt: democratic
the judiciary is totally independent
of the executive type of govt: communist
judiciary is a part of the executive. 1.The Guangdong Yangjiang Nuclear Power Station
2.The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau Bridge
3.The Jiuquan Wind Farm
4.The Ningxia’s Ningdong Energy and Chemical Industrial Base
5.The South-to-North Water Diversion Project 1.Jaitapur Nuclear Power Project
2.The Eastern Economic Corridor of India
3.Gujarat International Finance Tech-City
4.Hogenakkal Integrated Drinking
5.The Delhi-Mumbai Industrial
Corridor Project THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA THE TAJ MAHAL THE BIRD'S NEST THE BANDRA-WORLI
SEA LINK THE FORBIDDEN CITY IMPERIAL TOWERS A PAGODA JANTAR MANTAR THE ORIENTAL PEARL
TOWER RED FORT Coal-52% oil-34% natural gas-7% hydro elec-5% nuclear-1% renewable0%
As of 2012, India has 20 nuclear reactors in operation in six nuclear power plants, seven other reactors are under construction
Major natural gas pipeline: Trans- Afghan 1,735 kilometres (1,078 mi) 27 billion cubic metres
District heating is not being planned in India Coal- 69% oil- 22% hydro elec- 6% natural gas-3% nuclear-1% renewable- 0%
China has planned to build up another 30 sets of nuclear power generator within 15 years with total installed capacity of 80 GWs by 2020,
Major natural gas pipeline: Sino-burma 2,806 km (1,744 mi) 12 billion cubic meters per year
District heating is being planned in northern china HEALTH CARE Investment: 2.4% of GDP (2009)
HIV patients- 2.4 million (2009 est.)
Degree of risk: high
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, dengue fever, Japanese encephalitis, and malaria
Animal contact disease: rabies
Water contact disease: leptospirosis Investment: 4.6% of GDP
Degree of risk: intermediate
Food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
Vectorborne diseases: Japanese encephalitis and dengue fever
Animal contact disease: rabies
Soil contact disease: hantaviral hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) EDUCATION Budget- 3248.6 bn yuan
Literacy Rate: 92%
Focus on rural education- 1995-2000
The first "Law on Promotion of Private Education" came into effect on September 1, 2003. Budget- 52057 cr rupees
Focus on rural education- 1952
Private education has a long history in India MILITARY Tanks- 7950
Naval Power- 972
Labour force- 795,500,000
Defense budget- $129,272,000,000 Tanks- 355
Naval power- 170
Labour force- 487,600,000
Defense Budget- $44,382,000,000 SPORTS EVENTS HOSTED Asian Games
Cricket World Cup
Hockey World Cup
Indian Grand Prix
Indian Premier League Asian Games
BWF World Championships
Boxing Championships GENERAL OVERVIEW Lack of funds and support from the government is a chief cause of the poor performance of Indian athletes
Lack of encouragement
Poor quality of facilities or no facilities are provided.
India focuses only on a few sports. China provides adequate amount of government aid to athletes to ensure a victory.
There are more than 200 state-of-the-art sports centers in China
China focuses on every single olympic sport. INDIA FINANCIAL SYSTEMS AGRICULTURE India uses 5% of the world's water supply.
The drinking water segment has been stealthily privatized.
As much as 69% of India’s water goes untreated.
Price of 1 cubic cm. in US$:
$0.08 (2009) China uses 25% of the world's water supply.
The responsibility for
dealing with water is split between several agencies within the government.
One out of four (300 million) Chinese do not have daily access to clean water
Price of 1 cubic cm. in US$:
$0.27 (2009) The financial sector has acquired strength, efficiency and stability by the combined effect of competition, regulatory measures, and policy environment.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee. It also develops the strategy of the Government of India.
Taxes in India are levied by the Central Government and the state governments. Some minor taxes are also levied by the local authorities such the Municipality or the Local Council.
China's financial system is highly regulated and has recently begun to expand rapidly as monetary policy becomes integral to its overall economic policy.
For the past few decades, the People's Bank of China has exercised the functions and powers of a central bank, as well as handling industrial and commercial credits and savings business. It also acts as the treasury.
Taxes provide the most important revenue source for the Government of China. As the most important source of fiscal revenue, tax is a key economic player of macro-economic regulation, and greatly affects China's economic and social development. FISHERIES India is a major supplier of fish in the world. In 2006 the country exported over 600,000 metric tonnes of fish, to some 90 countries, earning over $1.8billion.
Fishing in India contributed over 1 percent of India's annual gross domestic product in 2008 China's 2005 reported harvest was 32.4 million tonnes, more than 10 times that of the second-ranked nation, India, which reported 2.8 million tonnes.
In 2005, China was sixth largest importer of fish and fish products in the world, with imports totaling US$4.0 billion INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and fisheries accounted for 16.6% of the GDP in 2009, about 50% of the total workforce.
Today, India ranks second worldwide in farm output.
Agriculture in India benefited from the green revolution. Agriculture is a vital industry in China, employing over 300 million farmers, it accounts for 15 percent of the GDP in 2004.
China ranks first in worldwide farm output.
Chinese agriculture benefited from a major reform awarding decision-making and control over income to smallholders INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA 2 12 INDIA CHINA INDIA CHINA CHINA THANK YOU!