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Philippine Music Cultures

An Overview
by

de la Pena Verne

on 4 April 2016

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Transcript of Philippine Music Cultures

Philippine Music Cultures:
An Overview
Verne de la Peña, Ph.D.
University of the Philippines

1200
1800
1600
1400
2000
1240
Arab traders introduce Islam in Sulu
1521
Ferdinand Magellan
lands in the islands
1898
Treaty of Paris transfers ownership of the Philippines from Spain to US
1896
Philippine Revolution begins
1946
Philippine Independence
PHILIPPINE HISTORY TIMELINE
1565
Spain establishes
a colonial government;
Christianity takes foothold
URBAN ART AND POPULAR MUSIC
LOWLAND FOLK
SACRED AND SECULAR TRADITIONS
ASIATIC TRADITIONS
7,107 islands
Population: 95.8 M
No. of languages: approx 150
Multiplicity of Languages
+
Geographic Separation
+
History
=
Musical Diversity
Tri-Strata Model
of Philippine Music Cultures

after Jose Maceda (1917-2004)
Pioneering Philippine Musicologist
concert tradition and popular forms
came as a result of American Colonial rule in the 20th century
present day globalizing influences
songs, dances and ritual that have evolved during three centuries of Spanish colonial rule
Pre-colonial music cultures practiced by about 8% of the population known as "indigenous peoples"
includes traditions influenced by Islam
3
2
1
kulintang
(gongs in row )
agung
(large hanging gong, wide rim)
gandingan
(set of hanging gongs, narrow rim)
babandil
(small hanging gong)
dabakan
(drum)
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
AMERICAN ERA
here
CORDILLERA REGION
Northern Traditions
2 General Types
of Asiatic Music:
SouthernTraditions
Distinguishable Features between Northern and Southern traditions:
Type of gongs used

Vocal Styles

Forms and Social Structures of Music
Varying names for gong: gangsa, gangha
Differ in number of gongs
In combination with conical drum and steel percussion
Interlocking patterns that produce “resultant melodies”
Common ceremonial and ritual function
Associated with the spirit world
Restricted use
Other distinguishing features
Northern Styles:
Open form
In ensemble music, parts are of equal importance
Communal music making (no specialization)
Southern Styles:
Close form
In ensemble music, parts are hierarchical
Emphasis on virtuosity (music is a specialization)
Northern Gong Ensembles
Gangsa
(flat gong)
NORTHERN GONGS
SOUTHERN GONGS
Ensembles combining gongs and drums
Various gong sizes and functions
Kulintang (gong row)is the main melodic instrument – others provide support
Associated with ceremonies and entertainment
MINDANAO
MAGUINDANAO KULINTANG ENSEMBLE
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=__X7eTzJvmY
BAMBOO ENSEMBLE
as substitutes for gongs
Southern Gong Ensembles
North:
Logogenic: speech like enunciation
Short phrases
Narrow range
South:
Tense, nasal vocal production
Wide range
Melogenic - complex mellisma, ornamentation
Long phrases (breath length)
SINGING STYLE
TAUSUG
"LUGU"
PHILIPPINE MUSIC
A. Liturgical Music
Rondalla (Plucked String Ensemble)
B. Para-Liturgical
Pasyon (chanting of the Passion of Christ
Mass
PHILIPPINE RONDALLA
PHILIPPINE MUSIC CULTURES
An Overview


Indigenous Music (Antonio C. Hila)
http://filipinoheritage.zxq.net/arts/phil-music/pre-colonial-indigenous-music.htm

Philippine Music Instruments (Corazon Canave-Dioquino)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?i=155&igm=1

Asiatic Musical Traditions in the Philippines (Jonas Baes)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=148

Philippine Music, A Historical Overview (Corazon Canave-Dioquino)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=154

Westernized Musical Traditions in the Philippines(Jonas Baes)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=162

Philippine Liturgical Music (Manuel P. Maramba, OSB)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=156

History of Music Education in the Philippines (Leticia G. del Valle)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=153

Contemporary Music (Ramon P. Santos, Ph. D.)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=149

Philippine Music Forms/Composition (Ramon P. Santos, Ph. D.)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=152

Folk Traditions (Corazon Canave-Dioquino)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=151

Folk Traditions (Corazon Canave-Dioquino)
http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=1&i=146

Phil History Timeline (Wikipedia) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_Philippine_history

Historiography of the moro kulintang (Isaac Donoso Jiménez)
http://www.sibetrans.com/trans/a102/historiography-of-the-moro-kulintang
INTERNET RESOURCES
delapena_verne@yahoo.com
video by Verne de la Pena
video by Verne de la Pena
Video by Ramon Santos
video by Alyssa Dioquino
Katy de la Cruz
(1907-1997)
PHILIPPINE JAZZ
PHILIPPINE CONCERT MUSIC TRADITION
Sacred
Secular
Instrumental
Folksongs
Tagalog Balitaw
Theater
Sarsuela
Ang Kiri (Leon Ignacio, 1926)
Awit
As a result of linguistic variation and geographical separation among local populations combined with a history of foreign contact and colonization (Islamic, Hispanic and American), there exists a diversity of music cultures in the Philippines. Today, these music cultures are commonly classified into three types: 1) urban, 2) folk and 3) Asiatic. The urban music cultures came as a result of American colonization in the first half of the 20th century and the subsequent intensified globalization which comprise mainly of art and popular music. On the other hand, the lowland music cultures found in the countryside and practiced by the majority of Catholic Filipinos evolved through the Spanish colonial period from the 16th to the 19th century. These music traditions include Christian liturgical and extra-liturgical forms as well as secular songs and dances. Finally, the Asiatic music cultures are practiced by numerous language groups commonly referred to as Philippine ethnic minorities. These musics, marked by a closer affinity to other Asian traditions, may be further classified into a Northern and a Southern style, based on gong types and singing style.
Abstract
1200
1800
1600
1400
2000
1240
Arab traders introduce Islam in Sulu
1521
Ferdinand Magellan
lands in the islands
1898
Treaty of Paris transfers ownership of the Philippines from Spain to US
1896
Philippine Revolution begins
1946
Philippine Independence
1565
Spain establishes
a colonial government;
Christianity takes foothold
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
AMERICAN ERA
Full transcript