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ANTH475.FALL18.LINGUISTICANTH 09/18/18

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Melissa Maceyko

on 18 September 2018

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Transcript of ANTH475.FALL18.LINGUISTICANTH 09/18/18

Linguistic Anthropology
Language as Social Action
Language should be studied, "not only as a mode of thinking but, above all, as a cultural practice, that is, a form of action that both presupposes and at the same time brings sbout ways of being in the world" (Duranti 1997).
Linguistic Anthropology
Multifunctionality
One utterance can do many different levels of work in any given speech event.
Language Ideology
Attitudes, opinions, beliefs, and/or theories that we all hold about language.
Practice
Actions in the world, where language, too, is a social action.
Practice emerges from structure, reproduces structure, transforms structure
Indexicality
A sign that "points to" something else, or co-occurs.
Can be referential, non-referential, or both.
Feminism(s)
"A diverse and sometimes conflicting set of theoretical, methodological, and political perspectives that have in common a commitment to understanding and challenging social inequalities related to gender and sexuality" (Bucholtz 2014: 23).
Difference Feminisms (2nd Wave)
Critical Feminisms (3rd Wave)
Queer Feminisms (3rd Wave)
Your Turn: Analysis



Take notes while you watch the following clips. Analyze language use in the clip based on one of the following:
The role of a
DOMINANT LANGUAGE IDEOLOGY
the
INDEXICAL
nature of the language used (be specific--referential or non referential?)

Also try to note if you are focusing on a specific
LEVEL
(phonology; morphology; etc.). Might also consider
LANGUAGE VARIETY
distinctions (dialect; style; etc)
Language, Gender, and Sexuality Studies and Feminist Thought
Hedges
Mitigation
e.g. All I know is...; I guess that...
Polite Forms
I'd really appreciate it if...
Tag Questions
John is here, isn't he?
Speaking in Italics
emphatic SO or VERY (e.g. That is SO awesome).
Empty adjectives
nice, adorable, huge?
Hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation
Lack of sense of humor
Direct Quotations
Instead of paraphrase
Special Lexicon
e.g. color terms=magenta
Question Intonation
When will dinner be ready? Around six?
Women's Language

Language and Woman's Place
(1975)
"The marginality and powerlessness of women is reflected in both the ways women are expected to speak, and the ways in which women are spoken of" (Lakoff 1975)
Robin Lakoff
Feminism(s)
Difference Feminisms (2nd Wave)
Critical Feminisms (3rd Wave)
more complex conceptualizations of gender compared with "difference Feminisms"; goes beyond binary
Marxist
Critical Race Feminisims
Masculinities
Queer Feminisms (3rd Wave)
focus of inquiry is on the concept of gender itself
LGBT
Sex Positive
Poststructuralist
Lakoff: Connection to Feminist Thought
Difference Feminism I: Deficit Models
Liberal Feminism
Deborah Tannen

You Just Don't Understand
(1990)
"Cross-gender misunderstandings arising from distinct verbal cultures" with different conventions for verbal interaction (LAG 39)
Tannen: Connection to Feminist Thought
Difference Feminism II: Difference Models
Cultural Feminism
"Conversational Insecurity"

(1980) and "Interaction: The Work Women Do" (1978).
Male dominance in male-female interaction impacts women's participation, including their ability to gain the floor, and hold the floor.
Modern Equivalent: mansplaining?
Connection to Feminist Thought
Difference Feminism III: Dominance Models
Radical Feminism
Pamela Fishman
Terms: Language Varieties
Language Variety
any form of language characterized by systematic features
Idiolect
variety of language spoken by an individual speaker, which differs systematically from other native speakers of that language.
Dialect
Variety of a language spoken by a group of people that is characterized by systematic differences from other varieties of the same language in terms of structural or lexical features (LF 2010: 409). Every person speaks a dialect.
NOT only differences in pronunciation or uses of slang.
Mutual Intelligibility? A language is a dialect with an army and a navy?
In sociolinguistics, a group of speakers who speak the same dialect are called a
SPEECH COMMUNITY
.
"Non-standard" dialects are often labeled as inferior; however, "linguistically speaking, no one dialect or language is better, more correct, more systematic, or more logical than any other" (LF 412).
Standard American English
Idealization that defies definition because agreement on what constitutes this variety does not exist.
Standard dialects are often associated with the variety of a language spoken by economic and political elites and used in education and the media.
Accent
systematic phonological variation
Register/Style
Culturally specific linguistic repertoire associated with particular social practices and persons who engage in such practices (Ahearn 123). (e.g. geek speak).
Code Switch
One person's use of two or more language varieties in a single social setting or exchange.
Takeaways from Film Excerpt:
Levels of Analysis
Barrett: Performativity and Beyond
DQ1. What does Barrett mean when he uses the concept of “citation”? Provide an example (from the text or from real life) and explain “citation”.

DQ2. What does Barrett say about language and authenticity? What can this tell us about studying language varieties that are “authentic”?

DQ3. Describe the idea of performativity, as discussed by Barrett.

DQ4. How does Barrett’s work extend our discussion of INDEXICALITY?

Citation
Role of repetition and memory in normalization. Involves form/utterance/content/context.
Example “Girlfriend, that dress makes you look fabulous!”
Authenticity
“Authenticity does not exist independently from the discourse that validates or questions the (presumably essentialized) relationship between cultural expression and social identity” (6)
Performativity
Performatives ala Austin: understood based not on truth, but on change
felicitous/infelicitous

“To examine how combinations of signs collaborate to convey aspects of identity (such as gender), it is useful to examine the way in which performativity operates through indexicality” (9)
Indexicality +
Barrett adds a discussion of co-construction, normalization, and potential for change (indexical disjuncture)

Appropriation: “indices of an identity category (e.g. white woman) are borrowed by outsiders in an attempt to draw associations with the permanent characteristics (or personality traits) associated with a social group that a speaker does not claim as her or his own” (17)
FORMS OF resistance to one system of domination may reinforce some domination within another system
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