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Spanish Civil War
Transcript of Spanish Civil War
Parties and international intervention
Spanish Civil War
Overview of the Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil War was a military revolt against the loyal Republican people of Spain instigated by the rebellious Nationalists led by Francisco Franco. At the outbreak of the war, the Nationalists received aid from Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany while the Republicans received aid from the Soviet Union. Foreign involvement in international brigades also played an important role.
Mussolini wanted to ensure that the fascist movement continued on and he feared the communism.
Communists, socialists, anarchists
Sought equal distribution of nation's health.
Supported the government of the Second Spanish Republic.
Sought outside support.
Russia wanted to stop the spread of Fascism.
It became the main supplier of military aid to the Republican Army
Russia spearheaded the Comitern aid to the Republican Army
35,000 people volunteered to help in the Spanish Civil War.
Members of the International Brigade came from numerous countries – Great Britain, France, the USSR, Canada, the US...
Reasons for German involvement:
Landowners, businessmen, devout Catholics, military officers and the Spanish Fascist Party
Commander and chief: Francisco Franco
sought to maintain a more traditional, conservative Spain
Received military support from:
Total contributions during Spanish Civil War:
-6,000 Italian Air Force
-29,000 Fascist Militia
Mussolini signed a secret treaty with Francisco Franco allowing Italy to establish bases in Spain in return for Military aid
Hitler's fascist government supported fascism
They were anti-communists
They wanted to taste ground for tactics and weapons
Effects of German involvement:
Resources to contribute to war effort were gained.
German tactics and technology were much more effective.
Two important regions in Spain wanted independence – Catalonia and the Basque region.
The Roman Catholic Church was hostile to the republic and the republic was hostile to the highly influential Roman Catholic Church.
Spain was primarily an agricultural nation and the 1930’s Depression had hit prices for crops. The depression also affected the industry
Unemployment in both agriculture and industry rose and those in work had to put up with a cut in wages as the economy struggled to survive the Depression.
The Republic faced losing the support of those whose support it desperately needed – the working class.
With better organised and better equipped forces, the Nationalists took Madrid and won the war in March, 1939.
Hitler gains power
Hitler's position in Europe was now strengthened since he had another potential ally in the right-wing dictator of Spain, General Franco.
By ignoring the Non-Intervention Committee and its chief architects, France and Britain, Hitler had shown his strength in European affairs.
Economy took a hit
USSR was defeated in Spain and credibility to communism was hurt
170,000 killed by malnutrition
Jobs given to Nationalists
Church rules again
It left Spain's economic and social infrastructure in ruins and left thousands deaths.
When did the Spanish Civil War occur?
It started in 17 July, 1936 and finished in 1 April, 1939.
On April 1, 1939, Francisco Franco was declared caudillo, or ruler of all Spain. On this day, the United Stated formally recognized his government. The Nationalists had won the war. Franco remained the dictator of Span until his death in 1975. The Republicans in Spain faced exile, death, imprisonment, torture and silent submission.
July 17, 1936:
In 1936, in Morocco, Spanish junior army officers revolted against the military leadership.
Supported by the Foreign Legion, they were able to overcome the resistance.
The army, who later became known as Nationalists, took over Seville and much of Andalusia.
The Republican governments attempts to negotiate with the rebels failed.
As a result, Republican militias form to defend the government.
Both the Nationalists and Republicans were short on supplies, fighting with old weapons on thinly held fronts.
Communication was bad, as was their armor and air support.
Civilians were targeted, but both sides maintained morale. Tanks and air power were decisive in battles.
There were indiscriminate and brutal murders committed by both sides and tremendous use of propaganda.
Soviet tanks, advisers and fighter planes help Republicans
Nationalists have colonial troops, calvary, German tanks and airplanes, Italian troops and supplies
Reigns of terror and indiscriminate murders
Aerial bombardment, heavy artillery
Beseiged, blockaded, bombarded cities
Nationalists acted on the offensive, Republicans mostly on the defensive.
In conclusion, although intended as just a national dispute, the Spanish Civil war extended its limits, marking the beginning of the Second World War and what is known as the darkest period in Europe's history.
Militarism, racism and totalitarianism
Participation and co-operation in the Spanish war strengthened the bond between Italy and Germany.
As a result, the Rome-Berlin Axis was formed. Italy and Germany were now firm allies.
By: Patricia Capdevila