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Audra Cole

on 6 January 2017

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Transcript of Reading

Created by Audra Cole
Certified in Secondary Special Education and Secondary English Education
For Margaret Murphy Center for Children Middle and Secondary Program
2012 Reading 101 Beginner Intermediate Print Awareness Pre-Reading Skills Holy cow! Advanced Reading Recognizing that books:
have a front and back
have a top and bottom
go from left to right Print Awareness is: Understanding that
print is everywhere
print shares information
print serves different purposes Fluency Comprehension Vocabulary Phonetics Phonological
Awareness "Phoneme awareness is the ability to identify phonemes, the vocal gestures from which words are constructed, when they are found in their natural context--spoken words. Children need phoneme awareness to learn to read because letters represent phonemes in words. A phoneme is the meaning of a letter or digraph, the "mouth move" signaled by the letter."
http://www.auburn.edu/~murraba/phon.html "Children who have phonological awareness are able to identify and make oral rhymes, can clap out the number of syllables in a word, and can recognize words with the same initial sounds like 'money' and 'mother." "They can replace one sound with another to make a new word, and idenitify a word enough if a sound is missing." Phonological awareness




Comprehension 5 area of instruction for students who are beginning to read: http://www.readingrockets.org/helping/target/phonologicalphonemic/ http://www.speech-language-development.com/phonemic-awareness.html Instruction Not written. Saying words slowly and having student identify each sound. Identifying individual words within a sentence. Identifying syllables within a word Removing the first or last sound within a word and having students guess. Rhyming activities and stories Creating "silly" words. Identifying initial sounds of words and when words sound the same. Instruction "Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters (graphemes) of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language. It teaches children to use these relationships to read and write words."
Can also be called:
graphophonemic relationships
letter-sound associations
letter-sound correspondences
sound-symbol correspondences
sound-spellings http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/PRF-teachers-k-3-phonics.cfm Instruction Instruction Instruction Breaking down the word Text to Self Analogy phonics
- Teaching students unfamiliar words by analogy to known words

Embedded phonics
-Teaching students phonics skills by embedding phonics instruction in text reading.

Phonics through spelling
-Teaching students to segment words into phonemes and to select letters for those phonemes

Synthetic phonics
-Teaching students explicitly to convert letters into sounds (phonemes) and then blend the sounds to form recognizable words. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/254/ "A validated method for the identification and quantification of 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), 11-hydroxy-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (11-OH-THC) and 11-nor-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-COOH) in post-mortem blood specimens is described. Liquid–liquid extraction was used to extract the cannabinoids from 1mL of post-mortem blood. The extracts were derivatized with N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. The final derivatized extracts were analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The limit of detection was 0.25ng/mL for all analytes and the limit of quantification of the assay was 0.25ng/mL for THC, CBN, 11-OH-THC and 0.5ng/mL for CBD and THC-COOH. The assay was linear across the concentration range 0.25–50ng/mL (determined with a low and a high calibration range) with correlation coefficients ≥0.992 for all analytes." http://www.fsijournal.org/article/S0379-0738(12)00215-0/abstract "Beginning readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they see in print." http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3472/ List group label
Possible sentences
Semantic Feature Analysis
Word Map
Word Hunts wide or extensive independent reading to expand word knowledge word consciousness and word-play activities to motivate and enhance learning. Context clues
Root words and parts of words "I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The
phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid. Apaprtnetly it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr
the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be
in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a
porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef,
but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?
Yaeh and I awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!" http://scienceavenger.blogspot.com/2007/12/cambridge-word-scramble-study-its-fake.html http://www.readingrockets.org/article/9943/ instruction in specific words to enhance comprehension of texts containing those words instruction in independent word-learning strategies Guidelines for Fluency instruction
Provide children with opportunities to read and reread a range of stories and informational texts.
Introduce new or difficult words to children, and provide practice reading these words before they read on their own.
Include periodic timing of children's oral reading
Model fluent reading, then have students reread the text on their own. http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3416/ "Good readers think actively as they read. They use their experiences and knowledge of the world, vocabulary, language structure, and reading strategies to make sense of the text and know how to get the most out of it. They know when they have problems with understanding and how to resolve these problems as they occur." This is why we read. Without comprehension the process is pointless. http://www.readingrockets.org/teaching/reading101/comprehension/ Answering Questions
Ensure that the student is attending to the story, ask questions as you go concerning the pictures on the page. "What is it?" "How many?" "What color?"

Story retell
Break the story down into steps/plot points, the student learns to retell the story step by step with expression. Text to Text Text to World Choose the
assessments At this stage students are strong decoders, fluency is still worked on, but is not longer the main focus. Instruction shifts to comprehension, including: Vocabulary

Text Connections

Story Elements

Inferences Plot Conflict Detective Work Pictures, movies,
and comic books Anchor Charts Instruction Instruction Instruction Vocabulary Vocabulary Journal Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy "The Vocabulary Self-Collection strategy (VSS) is an interactive-learning instructional strategy that promotes word consciousness, as students are actively engaged in identifying important words from their reading to share with members of their class." http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40627_4.pdf 1. Teachers introduce the purpose of VSS to students.

2. Teachers model how to select and nominate important words from the readings.

3. Teachers demonstrate how to use context and other resources to learn the mean- ing of the word.

4. Teachers write the word, the context in which it was used, its meaning, and the reason for selecting the word on chart paper.

5. After students are familiar with the strategy, teachers provide guided practice to support the use of VSS during reading.

6. Student completes process on their own Vocabulary Self-Collection Strategy "The major benefits of using VSS are that students engage in their own learning, discover how to recognize unfamiliar or interesting words from their readings, develop their vocabulary, and become word conscious." Word Mapping "The purpose of the Word Mapping strategy is to promote the students’ deeper understanding of words through depicting varying relationships between and among words.Word maps are visual displays of word meanings organized to depict relationships with other words." Word mapping Graphic Morphemic Analysis 1. Introduce Vocabulary Journals to students.

2. Demonstrate how to select words from a reading.

3. Use a think-aloud to model how to construct meanings from words.

4. Record ideas that have been used to explore the meaning of the word.

5. Encourage students’ systematic use and sharing of Vocabulary Journals.

6. Encourage students to use their Vocabulary Journals as a resource. Vocabulary Journal Text Connections Story Structure Inferences Word Wall 1. Establish a purpose for using the word wall.

2. Select the words that are targeted for instruction.

3. Before reading, teach the words.

4. After reading, students may post words to the word wall.

5. Initiate activity around the word wall. Word Wall 1. Select words for vocabulary instruction.

2. Project a blank word map on the screen.

3. Write the key words on the word map.

4. Use a think-aloud to model how to explore relationships between words.

5. Record ideas that have been used to explore the word meanings and relationships.

6. Students are directed to use the word maps during and after reading to add information about the key words.

7. Students share their maps with others. Students categorize words before, during and after they read and examine how the words relate to each other as well as the concept. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40627_4.pdf Also known as Graphic Morphemic Analysis. "The Graphic Morphemic Analysis strategy employs a systematic approach to deconstructing a word into its meaningful parts (morphemes) to figure out what the word means through the use of a graphic." "A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning within a word. Most of us know morphemes as root words and affixes or prefixes and suffixes." 1. Select a word from the assigned readings for teaching the strategy.

2. Engage students in a discussion on the purpose of the strategy.

3. Use a think-aloud to demonstrate how to divide a word into its parts.

4. Demonstrate how to examine each word part for its meaning.

5. Guide students through the process of using the graphic organizer to analyze a word and determine its meaning.

6. . In the appropriate box, write the sentence that contains the target word.

7. Show students how to figure out the meaning of the word.

8. Check the meaning of the word with the dictionary
definition. "The key to implementing the word wall strategy is interactivity. [Students] are encouraged to use the words posted on the word wall for their own reading and writing. To promote interaction and dialogue around the words, it is important to keep the words relevant." The word wall is an ever changing visual that promotes the both the acquisition of new words and the maintenance of mastered words. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40627_4.pdf "Students select words from their readings that are difficult, novel, or used in different contexts. They use their journals to explore the words’ meanings, make connections between the new words and their own experiences and ideas they already know, and produce rich definitions." "The primary purpose for using Vocabulary Journals is to encourage students to become word conscious by collecting new and interesting words and learning their meanings through engaged explorations. Vocabulary Journals may be used as part of guided reading lessons, during independent reading, and during their readings across the content areas." "Beginning readers must use the words they hear orally to make sense of the words they see in print." http://www.readingrockets.org/article/3472/ "Learning vocabulary is more complex than simply memorizing definitions of words; rather, it involves seeing, hearing, and using words in meaningful contexts." http://littoolkit.pbworks.com/f/Middle%2520School%2520Vocabulary%2520Strategies.pdf Best practices include:
1. Rich and varied language experiences
2. Direct teaching of individual words
3. Independent word-learning strategies
4. Fostering word consciousness http://www.ngsp.net/Portals/0/Downloads/HBNETDownloads/Edge_Mono_Moore2.pdf "Students who make connections while reading are better able to understand the text they are reading. It is important for students to draw on their prior knowledge and experiences to connect with the text. Students are thinking when they are connecting, which makes them more engaged in the reading experience." http://suite101.com/article/making-connections-and-reading-a129868 Anchor Charts Graphic Organizers http://www.hallco.org/literacy/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=10 "Anchor charts are co-constructed by the teacher and students to record the thinking and classroom discussions that take place. These charts should be available for long periods of time for students to refer back to during their learning." Collection of Anchor Charts
http://pinterest.com/youcantbuylove/anchor-charts-language-arts/ Retention-Students remember information better and can better recall it when it is represented and learned both visually and verbally.

Reading comprehension-The use of graphic organizers helps improving the reading comprehension of students.

Student achievement -Students with and without learning disabilities improve achievement across content areas and grade levels.

Thinking and learning skills; critical thinking -When students develop and use a graphic organizer their higher order thinking and critical thinking skills are enhanced. Graphic organizers are shown to improve the following areas: Most graphic organizers can be edited for your purposes. Resources for graphic organizers http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/star/ http://www.studenthandouts.com/graphicorganizers.htm http://www.teachervision.fen.com/graphic-organizers/printable/6293.html http://www.superteacherworksheets.com/graphic-organizers.html http://www.netrover.com/~kingskid/graphic/graphic.htm http://udltechtoolkit.wikispaces.com/Graphic+organizers http://freeology.com/graphicorgs/page/10/ http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/40627_4.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphic_organizer How to think vs. What to think. "In story structure, a reader sees the way the content and events of a story are organized into a plot. Students learn to identify the categories of content (setting, characters, problem/solution, theme,) and how this content is organized into a plot. Often students recognize the way the story is organized by developing a story map. This strategy improves students' comprehension and memory of story content and meaning." Beginner - Day 2 Activity Goal______: Given words that follow the short /a/, /i/,/u/,/o/, and /e/ consonant-vowel-consonant (c-v-c) pattern, ______ will increase his phonic and word attack skills reading 100 novel words four out of five consecutive opportunities as measured by written probe data collection by _______ What is being taught? How to teach it? http://www.readinga-z.com/more/reading_strat.html#wordattack http://underthealphabettree.blogspot.com/2011/07/word-attack-buddies.html Word Attack http://www.readingrockets.org/teaching/glossary/ Setting Plot is the very basic sequence of events that includes only the most important aspects of the story. Plot structure for
Les Miserables
- Victor Hugo 1,488 pages, paperback Exposition
- Meet the characters -Thief, Whore, Cop, Small Child Rebel.
- Begin story - Cop arrests Thief. Thief goes to jail and then escapes.
Rise in action
- Thief meets Whore. Whore dies and leaves Thief her Small Child. Thief is chased by Cop. Thief hides in plain sight and becomes rich; saves Rebels life. Rebel falls in love with Small Child who is now a Woman.
The climax
- Thief saves Cops life. Cop can no longer chase Thief, and commits suicide.
Fall in Action
-Rebel and Woman get married, find out Thief's life story.
The denouement
- Thief dies, life goes on. Instruction Ideas Walk the plot

Draw the story

Puzzle pieces

Practice with movies

Use a song

Graphic organizers Instruction for
Teaching Internal
Character Traits Characterization "Authors reveal character traits by
providing clues in the text" http://www.lauracandler.com/books/TPT/AnalyzingCharacterTraitsPreview.pdf Action Clues

Verbal Clues External vs. Internal A characters appearance and actions.

This is generally the easiest for a student to identify. Instruction for
Teaching External
Character Traits A personal quality like loyalty or bravery.

This is not the same as emotions because emotions can change, character traits stay the same. Life sized characters Character Trading Cards http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/interactives/trading_cards_2/ Graphic organizers Drawings Inside/outside visuals Graphic Organizers Anchor Charts Identify their own http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-kL2e1ZgPurc/TdHP5Yws6hI/AAAAAAAAAPY/GE0x_HJes_I/s1600/photo-20.jpg Internal Conflict 4 types of conflict The character is struggling with something inside.
Insecurity, confusion, anxiety, indecision. External Conflict The character is struggling with something outside of themselves. Parents, friends, bullying, racism, prejudice, plane crash, zombies.......... Teaching Conflict Movies Life experience Short scenarios Graphic organizers Anchor charts Place might include such things as a city, state, country, castle, cottage, playground, ship, mountain,
or stadium.

Time might include clues that let us know it is the afternoon, evening, the future, colonial times, or clock time.

Environment might include details that describe the weather, the noise level, or light. Setting Setting bookmarks What if....... http://www.readwritethink.org/files/resources/lesson_images/lesson961/Bookmark.pdf Setting maps Google Earth http://www.googlelittrips.org/ http://pinterest.com/youcantbuylove/fictional-maps/ Graphic organizers Reading between the lines We need to find clues to get some answers.
We need to add those clues to what we already know or have read.
There can be more than one correct answer.
We need to be able to support inferences. Mystery passengers

Inference cards

Riddles/Jokes http://pinterest.com/youcantbuylove/school-inference/ Average reading level in the U.S

Classroom dynamics

Teaching styles


There is no right answer Key Ideas and Details

1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

Craft and Structure

4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.

6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/CCRA/R Common Core - Anchor Standards Kids should read a wide range of materials, including young adult literature, classic literature, contemporary literature, informative texts, persuasive texts, poems, short stories, plays, speeches, graphic novels, media (blogs, pictures, videos, advertisements) etc.

A sense of purpose is key to reading success.

The classroom should become a reading community, a group of people who regularly read, talk, and write together.

Students of all ages need to hear powerful writing through performance—reading aloud by the teacher and other students, dramatic interpretation, audiobooks, etc.

Adolescent students need opportunities to connect with the adult literate community, starting with teachers as readers who generously share their reading lives with young people. http://www.google.com/url?q=http://www.readinga-z.com/research/bringing-the-common-core-standards-to-life-in-the-classroom.pdf&sa=U&ei=NzHnUOfNFIfE0AGZ4YEo&ved=0CBYQFjAB&sig2=YwA3ODYdfOnVmObg3N_m4A&usg=AFQjCNEf0W7kW3aHxIVLET_GIT7IZ9HxQA Integrated Thematic Units Gives students a context to place reading.

Shows students the relevancy of texts.

Illustrates the importance of the written word.

Opens students eyes to different perspectives.

Forces student to examine their place in the world. Why Choosing a theme. http://homeworktips.about.com/od/writingabookreport/a/themelist.htm

http://classiclit.about.com/od/bytheme1/By_Theme_Thematic_Approaches.htm Learning Objectives Choosing the content http://smago.coe.uga.edu/VirtualLibrary/index.html





http://teachersnetwork.org/middle_english_literature.cfm READ the content! This is the message you want to the students to get. This is also what will make the content relevant. Common themes include: friendship, maturation, perseverance, death and dying, justice. Fear of the different What will you be teaching the student to do. The content is the framework but the focus is the skills 1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.

8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. Go back to the common core Young Adult Literature Street Love by Walter Dean Myers - Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare

The Giver by Lois Lowry or The Hunger Games by Suzanne Collins - 1984 by George Orwell

Out of the Dust by Karen Hesse or Esperanza Rising by Pam Muñoz Ryan - The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck

The Perks of Being a Wallflower by Stephen Chbosky - The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger

Speak by Laurie Halse Anderson - The Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel Hawthorne

Fallen Angels by Walter Dean Myers - The Things They Carried by Tim O'Brien

Roll of Thunder Hear My Cry by Mildred D. Taylor - To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee What will be read, watched and listened to? Fear of the Different Use a bridge to classic literature Modern Adaptations Show students that the content is
still relevant. Fear of the Different "Classic" - Excerpts from The Crucible by Arthur Miller

Memoir at a Lower level - Farewell to Manzinar by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston

Primary Sources - Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America by Ben Franklin, Letters of the Accused from the Salem Witch Trials, First Joint Debate at Ottawa Mr. Lincoln's Reply, accounts from Guantanamo Bay

Movie - The Green Mile based on the book by Stephen King

Short Stories - "Those Who Don't" - Sandra Cisneres, Beauty and the Beast, "Fair Extension" by Stephen King

Poems - "I Was Born Different" - Deanna C. Dilley, People are Strange by The Doors, The Fear series by Rush No getting around it. Front loading - what do the kids need to warned about before reading.

Are there different cultures, religions, governments? Are there situations that will be hard to process? Look back at the objectives. Graphic organizers Discussions Trace the theme Book projects Interviews Carousal Embed vocabulary instruction Content and page # Response Music http://www.learningfromlyrics.org/songs.html http://www.learningfromlyrics.org/activs.htm Music allows students the opportunity to express their ideas and emotions in a way that they best understand. Using music allowed us to set the scene and tone for exploration of a topic. The utilization of music allows students to experience the sources of a time period. http://apbrwww5.apsu.edu/SRATE/JournalEditions/192/Goerring.pdf Tests and quizzes Robin Hood References and Resources http://www.readingrockets.org/helping/target/phonologicalphonemic/
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