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Advertising and Body Image

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Emily Garcia

on 5 April 2012

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Transcript of Advertising and Body Image

Advertising and Body Image By Sara Armas
Emily Garcia
Samantha Garrison
Chanel Yamaguchi
Advertisement's Effect On Women Advertiser's often emphasize the importance of physical atractiveness which puts a lot of pressure on women The pressure can lead to unhealthy behavior(s) such as bulimia, anorexia, suicide, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and/or emotional problems Being thin is the ideal target of advertising and the media 80% of 10 year old girls have dieted and 50% of American women are currently dieting. 1/3 of American woman start smoking just to control their appetite. "I wish I were one size smaller" Some clothing stores only advertise and sell small sizes There is a perception for girls and guys that we should be wearing the smallest size humanly possible. Most girls try to buy the smallest size they can fit in and they suffer all day uncomfortably. Anorexia Bulimia "Why can't you be more like..." Due to advertisements of small and beautiful models, parents are being effected They pressure their daughterss to look thinner, change hair color, or even wear makeup. "ugh, I hate the way I look" many girls are pressured to look extra pretty and thinner for big events Most girls try to cut back on eating before a big event such as dances & weddings. Movies portray events being perfect and the actress or actor looking perfect as well. What 'really' goes into pictures In covers and adds models and famous people look perfect, but the truth is that they do NOT look like that in person.
Technology has advanced in photoshop and retouching pictures you can make extreme changes to someones appearance. Guys Have Body Issues, Too That guy in the Abercombie & Fitch ad doesn't have a head, but does it really matter? His upper body is as sculpted as Michelangelo's David- all chisled muscle, washboard abs and not a follicle of chest hair.
You don’t just see him in the provocative ads for Abercrombie, the youth-oriented clothing chain: On billboards and in magazines everywhere, it seems, there’s a male Adonis — buff, sleek, hairless. Like that famous 500-year-old statue, it’s nice to look at. But how does it make the average guy feel?
Maybe not so great. With all the attention these days on the effect paper-thin models and actresses can have on girls and women, it’s worth noting that men can suffer from body image problems, too.

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15160230/ns/health-mens_health/t/guys-have-body-issues-too/#.T1LyhfHbg0k The Truth About Guys Many people think of guys as being carefree when it comes to their appearance. But the reality is that a lot of guys spend plenty of time in front of the mirror. It's a fact — some guys care just as much as girls do about their appearance.

You may hear a lot about being a tough guy, but how often do you hear that being a guy is tough? Guys might think that they shouldn't worry about how they look, but body image can be a real problem for them. Unlike girls, guys are less likely to talk to friends and relatives about their bodies and how they're developing. Without support from friends and family, they may develop a negative self-image.

The good news is that self-image and body image can be changed.
Why Is Body Image Important?
Body image is a person's opinions, thoughts, and feelings about his or her own body and physical appearance. Having a positive body image means feeling pretty satisfied with the way you look, appreciating your body for its capabilities and accepting its imperfections.

Body image is part of someone's total self-image. So how a guy feels about his body can affect how he feels about himself. If he gets too focused on not liking the way he looks, a guy's self-esteem can take a hit and his confidence can slide. http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/beautiful/male_bodyimage.html Guys use mirrors too... Wanting the perfect body! IF BEING A MAN MEANS HAVING BODY HAIR AND SWEATING, WHY ARE THE SEXY GUYS IN ADS IMMUNE TO BOTH? In the movie Fight Club, the character Tyler Durden (played by Brad Pitt) boards a bus and is confronted by an advertisement depicting a model’s perfectly muscled fantasy male body, sculpted by pathological obsession and posed as if natural. “Is that what a real man is supposed to look like?” he asks. However, students who view and were subjected to large amounts of media, particularly in music videos and prime-time TV, tended to be uncomfortable with one aspect of their physique—their ‘real bodies’. Whether “real-body” discomfort in men is truly new or something that’s only now being noticed is impossible to say, but sociologists and psychologists say that images of hairless, sweatless, pseudo-perfect men are more common than ever before.

Ideally, psychologists say, people should recognize that billboard bodies just aren’t real, and learn to be happy with their own appearance. That, of course, is easier said than done. http://seedmagazine.com/content/article/the_media_assault_on_male_body_image/ Over the past decade, men’s body image concerns have gained the attention of many researchers in the field of psychology Research shows that today’s college men are reporting greater levels of body dissatisfaction, and this is true for both gay and heterosexual men

Males associate their attractiveness with increased muscle definition, and are concerned about body shape (as opposed to weight) and increasing their muscle mass (Knowlton, 1995; University of Iowa Health Care, 2002)

Eating disorders in males typically involve a constant competition to stay more defined than other men (University of Iowa Health Care, 2002)

Gay and heterosexual men have equivalent levels of body esteem, satisfaction with body shape, and desired levels of thinness (YellandTiggermann, 2003). However, gay men are more likely than heterosexual men to be treated for eating disorders

Disordered eating and exercising behaviors among men are associated with obsessive feelings of inadequacy, unattractiveness, and failure

The viewing and purchasing of muscle and fitness magazines was associated with body dissatisfaction in both gay and heterosexual men (Duggan & McCreary, 2004)

Gay and heterosexual men involved in sports that emphasize strict body weight adherence (such as swimmers, runners, wrestlers, and jockeys) are at higher risk for developing eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia

Approximately 7-10 million women across the country suffer from eating disorders. Most research into these serious disorders has been conducted on females. However, as many as a million men may also struggle with the diseases!

Eating disorders include extreme attitudes, emotions and behaviors surrounding both food and weight issues. They include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. All are serious emotional and physical problems that can have devastating effects and life-threatening consequences. Eating disorders affect both men and women. While eating disorders are less common in men, approximately 10% of those suffering from eating disorders are male (Wolf, 1991). Studies also demonstrate that cultural and media pressures on men for the "ideal body" are the rise. This increased focus on body shape, size and physical appearance will likely contribute to increased numbers of eating disorder in males. Research indicates that eating disorders in males are clinically similar to eating disorders in females (Schneider & Argas, 1987).

Studies also demonstrate that certain athletic activities appear to put males at risk for developing eating disorders. Body builders, wrestlers, dancers, swimmers, runners, rowers, gymnasts and jockeys are prone to eating disorder due to the weigh restrictions necessitated by their sports (Andersen, Bartlett, Morgan & Rowena, 1995).

Body image concerns appear to be one the strongest variables in predicting eating disorders in males. Studies have demonstrated (Wertheim et al, 1992) that the drive for thinness was a more important predictor of weight loss behaviors than psychological and/or family variables (this desire was true of both adolescent males and females).

Other studies have found that men with eating disorders tend to have more passive-aggressive personality styles and have had negative reactions to their bodies from their peers while growing up. Research also indicates that anorexic males tend to have more dependent and avoidant personalities. Males with anorexia do not tend conform to the cultural expectations for masculinity such as: to be competitiveness, muscularity/strength, physical aggressiveness, independence and competence in athletics (Kearney-Cooke & Steichen-Asch, 1990).

http://www.edreferral.com/males_eating_disorders.htm Males: Eating Disorders,bulimia, anorexia Mirror, Mirror We are all more obsessed with our appearance than we like to admit. But this is not an indication of 'vanity'. Vanity means conceit, excessive pride in one's appearance. Concern about appearance is quite normal and understandable. Attractive people have distinct advantages in our society. Studies show:

Attractive children are more popular, both with classmates and teachers. Teachers give higher evaluations to the work of attractive children and have higher expectations of them (which has been shown to improve performance).

Attractive applicants have a better chance of getting jobs, and of receiving higher salaries. (one US study found that taller men earned around $600 per inch more than shorter executives.)

In court, attractive people are found guilty less often. When found guilty, they receive less severe sentences.

The 'bias for beauty' operates in almost all social situations – all experiments show we react more favourably to physically attractive people.

We also believe in the 'what is beautiful is good' stereotype – an irrational but deep-seated belief that physically attractive people possess other desirable characteristics such as intelligence, competence, social skills, confidence – even moral virtue. (The good fairy/princess is always beautiful; the wicked stepmother is always ugly)

http://www.sirc.org/publik/mirror.html This... That... These... And those... COSTS ALOT DUDE!!!!!!!!!!!! A Boob Job Costs How Much?! With many plastic surgeons, the surgeon's own fee is just one element of the cost of your procedure. Depending on your procedure, you may face significant additional charges. In order to pay for cosmetic procedures, people take out medical loans that cover only a fraction of the cost and pay the rest of the amount through a payment system. Costs For Popular Cosmetic Surgeries: Face Lift = $11,000 - $15,000
Rhinoplasty (Nose Job) = $7,500 - $8,500
Breast Augmentation (Boob Job) = $7,200 - $8,000
Abdominoplasty (Tummy Tuck) = $7,500 - $10,500
Liposuction = $2,600 - $6,500 Other Cosmetic Surgeries Breast lift (Mastopexy)

Breast reduction in men (Gynecomastia)

Buttock implants

Buttock lift

Calf augmentation

Cheek implant (Malar augmentation)

Chin augmentation (Mentoplasty)


Ear surgery (Otoplasty)

Eyelid surgery (Blepharoplasty)

Facelift (Rhytidectomy)

Forehead Lift

Hair transplantation

Lip augmentation
$1,604 Plastic Surgery Kings & Queens Though plastic surgery is more common now than it was ten years ago, many people still watch in awe as celebrities and upper class people shell out money to be more asthetically pleasing to the public eye. For some, the mounting costs of repetitive and touch-up cosmetic surgery not only bankrupts them but makes them targets for plastic surgery cautionary tales. America Turns to Foreign Places for a Helpful Nip and Tuck "If you have ever wondered at the cost of boob job then you may be pleasantly surprised. Popularity has grown hugely over the years and many women are popping into their local clinics to improve their confidence and body image. For those on a budget, cost of boob job will depend largely on what you can afford and where you have your surgery carried out. If money is no object then you can choose any procedure you like and expect the very best care and five star accommodation and service.

"A trip abroad for breast augmentation is very popular, with countries such as China, India, Brazil and Thailand offering the lowest prices. Cost of boob job here is a lot lower than prices in Western Europe and the US, but risk factors may be higher so be careful when selecting your clinic. Your health insurance may not cover you if things go wrong in another country to consider the implications and check out your insurance thoroughly." In the past couple of years Americans and their obsession with going under the knife has become so costly that it has brought them to a point where cosmetic surgery within the States is no longer an option unless money is no object for you. As a result people turn to foreign places for cheaper cosmetic surgery, which is encouraged by plastic surgery websites. Works Cited http://health.howstuffworks.com/wellness/cosmetic-treatments/the-price-of-beauty.htm http://www.sfcosmeticsurgery.com/costs/index.htm http://www.articlesbase.com/plastic-surgeries-articles/the-cost-of-boob-job-and-how-to-save-money-2382918.html http://www.allmedicaltourism.com/articles/destinations/mexico/ http://cheapercosmeticsurgeryabroad.com/index.html http://lipoease.com/how-much-does-liposuction-cost-in-mexico.html/ U.S. & Its Unhealthy Obsession With Body Image In America, many people have become "image-obsessed." They are bombarded with ads and tv shows that advertise how America thinks every man and woman should look like. It causes lots of people to resort to buying the products, enduring surgery, and going through various eating disorders. America's Influence In recent years, America's perception of body perfection has spread to other countries. Surveys have shown that countries that were more influenced by Western culture tended to push the body image Americans crave towards their own people. New Zealand and Australia are just two examples. The Skinny on Global Body Images Not all countries are influenced by that kind of media. In fact, a lot more countries tend to favor women with a healthier body image, and even more are starting to realize that "beauty is broader than bones." Cracking Down on Extreme Thinness Countries are also taking a stand and banning things that encourage extreme thinness. In 2007, Spain banned ultra-thin models from catwalks. In 2008, France proposed a bill banning ads from using models that "incite thinness." Works Cited http://www.divinecaroline.com/22181/48486-skinny-global-body-images; "The Skinny On Global Body Images"
http://www.healthyplace.com/ http://www.ehow.com/list_6894124_effects-unhealthy-diet.html Seventeen Magazine-Jess Weiner Seventeen Magazine- Jess Weiner Seventeen Magazine- Jess Weiner Seventeen Magazine- Jess Weiner Survey Questions Who do you think is more effected by advertisement, men or women? Do you believe that advertisers should change the way they portray people? What do you think is more effective, advertisments or hollywood? Do models and famous people used in advertisements seem perfect to you? Do you think it is worth spending large amounts of money on plastic surgery and other changes on appearance? why? Do you agree that advertisement is a leading cause of eating dissorders? Has advertisement had a positive effect on people or negative? explain. Do you think celebrities are also pressured to be skinny and look perfect? Is it bad to want to look good? Why is America so obssessed with the "perfect image"? Plastic Surgery Trends for 2012 With the approval of Xeomin in 2011, there are now three botulinum toxins used cosmetically. Expect to see rebates, price drops and Groupons galore as companies and surgeons vie for your business. The real dark horse in the race could be topical Botox. Preliminary studies are looking good; keep your eyes peeled for Revance therapeutics to get the FDA’s nod in 2012. The Wrinkle-Free Race More Male Procedures Glossy magazines sell off the rack when they feature photos of female reality TV actresses and film stars who may or may not have nipped or tucked. Expect to see more male celebs gracing these covers as male plastic surgery picks up speed in the new year. http://www.prleap.com/pr/184188/ Recession's Effects on Plastic Surgery Trends According to a survey done on RealSelf.com, consumer interest in plastic surgery is increasing despite the recession. The survey, which was developed by Harris Interactive®, interviewed 2,148 U.S. adults aged 18 years and older. While the American Society of Plastic Surgeons reported earlier this year that the 2009 numbers were down, the American desire to be more attractive has renewed. Harris Interactive® surveyed 2,148 adults online and 69 percent said they would choose to have cosmetic work done if money wasn't an issue. This is a 15 point ( 54%) jump from November 2009, when the survey was taken. http://cosmeticmdnation.blogspot.com/2010/06/survey-shows-growing-desire-for-plastic.html
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