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Transcript of Egypt
FOCUS ON FISK FINAL
Pregnancy testing/ contraceptive
Ebers papyrus – 1550 b.c.
thank you for watching
Osiris, bronze figurine of the Late Period
Horus offering a libation, bronze statue, 22nd dynasty (c. 800 bce)
Bronze figurine of Isis and her son Horus.
(Courtesy of the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Preussischer Kulturbesitz)
Religion guided every aspect of Egyptian life. Egyptian religion was based on polytheism, or the worship of many deities, except for during the reign of Akenaton. The Egyptians had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses.
The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" contains the major ideas and beliefs in the ancient Egyptian religion. Because their religion stressed an afterlife, Egyptians devoted much time and wealth to preparing for survival in the next world.
Anubis weighing the soul of the scribe Ani, from the Egyptian Book of the Dead, c. 1275 bce.
Thoth, represented in human form with ibis head, detail from the Greenfield Papyrus, c. 950 bce
King Seti I offering a figure of maʿat to Osiris, Isis, and Horus; relief in the temple of King Seti I, Abydos, early 13th century bce
Seti I: detail of relief
Mummy and mummy case of a Tanite princess, 21st dynasty (1075–c. 950 bce)
Egyptian is the oldest known language of Egypt and a branch of the Afro-asiatic language family.
The earliest known complete sentence in the Egyptian language has been dated to about 2690 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known, along with Sumerian.
Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the form of Coptic.
The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic, which gradually replaced Coptic as the language of daily life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt.
Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church.
It has a handful of fluent speakers today
A hieroglyph (Greek for "sacred writing") is a character of the ancient Egyptian writing system. Logographic scripts that are pictographic in form in a way reminiscent of ancient Egyptian are also sometimes called "hieroglyphs". In Neo-Platonism, especially during the Renaissance, a "hieroglyph" was an artistic representation of an esoteric idea, which Neo-Platonist believed actual Egyptian hieroglyphs to be. The word hieroglyphics
may refer to a hieroglyphic script.
Egyptian hieroglyphs: Writing through drawings and symbols
Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods. They were everywhere. Each city had a temple built for the god of that city. The purpose of the temple was to be a cosmic center by which men had communication with the gods. As the priests became more powerful, tombs became a part of great temples. Shown below is a typical temple flood plan with the purposes of each section given.
The priests duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs. The priests had many duties such as funeral rites, teaching school, supervising the artists and works, and advising people on problems.
Death and Funerals
The Egyptians saw death as a transitional stage in the progress to a better life in the next world.
After a period of about 70 days, in which the mummification process took place, the mummy was placed in a decorated coffin. Furniture, carved statues, games, food, and other items useful to the next life were prepared to be buried with the mummy. The last ritual performed by the priest on the mummy was called the "Opening of the Mouth." This ceremony was to magically give the deceased the ability to speak and eat again, and to have full use of his body. After placing the mummy in the sarcophagus, the tomb was sealed.
Ancient Egyptian Symbols
• Anubis was the god of embalming and the dead.
Each person was thought to have three souls
For these to function properly, it was considered essential for the body to survive intact.
What do these objects say about ancient Egyptians' spirituality?
2. Udjat - Eye of Horus
The ankh symbol represents life and eternal existence. It is the fully resurrected and glorified form of the deceased in the afterlife, and the result of a successful union of the ba and ka which can then roam freely about the earth. The ankh is a recurrent attribute of the gods, who presenteternal existence to the king.
The right side of the eye = 1/2
The pupil = 1/4
The eyebrow = 1/8
The left side of the eye = 1/16
The curved tail = 1/32
The teardrop = 1/64
(+) = 1
The udjat, or an amulet in the form of an eye, is a complex symbol in Egyptian thought. The right eye, called the Eye of Ra, symbolized the sun, while the left eye, called the Eye of Thoth or Aah, symbolized the moon. Together they represent Horus, whose falcon features are reflected in the eye’s design. The udjat is an ancient Egyptian symbol of health, protection and healing.
It is believed that the Djed is a rendering of a human backbone. It represents stability and strength. It was originally associated with the creation god Ptah. Himself being called the "Noble Djed". As the Osiris cults took hold it became known as the backbone of Osiris . A djed column is often painted on the bottom of coffins, where the backbone of the deceased would lay, this identified the person with the king of the underworld, Osiris. It also acts as a sign of stability for the deceased' journey into the afterlife.
Monuments of Masonry
four triangular faces that
Giza Pyramid Complex
Mortuary temples for the Pharaohs and Queens
Protect body and personal items
Vertex decorated with gold
Pyramids of KHUFU
The Great Pyramid
Spectacular and Brilliant Creations
The tallest structures for 3800 years
Inside the Pyramid:
1. Original Entry
2. Current Access
5. Underground Chamber
7. Queen's Chamber
9. Grand Gallery
10. King's Chamber
and ventilation channels
30 000 Egyptians worked for 50 years
Cutting and Transporting stone blocks
Pyramids of MENKAURE
The Menkaure Pharaoh reigned shortly
Pyramid was completed hastily
Pyramids of KHAFRE
Second Largest Pyramid
Limestone and Red Granite
Establish hierarchical levels;
Pharaohs and Gods in Egyptian mythology
Simple lines and stylized forms;
Rectilinear levels of structuring spaces;
Black (kem): Night, death, fertility and regeneration.
White (hedj): purity and truth.
Red (Decher): energy, power and sensuality / evil.
Yellow (ketj): sun, gold, eternity.
Green (uadj): regeneration of life.
Blue (khesebedj): Nile, sky.
Sphinx of Giza; Tutmosis, sixth pharaoh of the eighteenth Egypt dynasty; Death Mask of Tutankhamun; Bust of Amenhotep, Egyptian Museum, Berlin, Bust of Queen Nefertiti.
Perform at dinner parties, banquets, lodging houses, and even religious temples;
Currency Egyptian Pound (EGP)
Trade organisations WTO
GDP $262 billion
GDP per capita $6,600
Population below poverty line 26.5%
Labour force by occupation
Automobiles manufacturing, Textiles and clothing and Constrution are the most importants
Orascom Construction Industries are the second multinational Egyptian corporation
Steel industries,Chemicals, Consumer electronics and home appliances is anothers
Have a strong telecomunications sector (Cairo):
Orascom Telecom is the first multinational Egyptian corporation
Telecom Egypt is the third multinational Egyptian corporation
One of the better system of transports on Africa
Egypt is a producer of wheat, corn, sugarcane, fruit and vegetables, fodder, and rice; substantial quantities of wheat are also imported.
The government exercises a strong degree of control over agriculture, to ensure the best use of irrigation water
In Egypt were created: cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, poultry and donkeys.
New Valley Project (the "second Nile")
China 9.5% Italy 7.9%
United States 7.6% India 6.9%
Germany 6.7% United States 6.8%
Russia 5.3% Saudi Arabia 6.2%
Ukraine 5.3% Turkey 5.3%
Turkey 5.1% Libya 4.9%
Main export partners
Main import partners
Ancient Egypt/Empire (3100–332 BCE)
- Ten Dinasties
- tulúnida e ikhshidid
- built pyramids
Medium Egypt/Empire (2100 – 1580 BCE)
- Pharaohs back to politic
- Capital city was Tebas
New Egypt/Empire (1580 – 715 BCE)
- territorial conquests
Separated by Pharaohs
- Pharaoh/ (pharâo)
- dinasty = power, control
- few documents