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順服掌權者的神學釋經史

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John Chan

on 25 November 2016

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Transcript of 順服掌權者的神學釋經史

πᾶσα ψυχὴ ἐξουσίαις ὑπερεχούσαις ὑποτασσέσθω.
v1
ὥστε ὁ ἀντιτασσόμενος τῇ ἐξουσίᾳ τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ διαταγῇ ἀνθέστηκεν, οἱ δὲ ἀνθεστηκότες ἑαυτοῖς κρίμα λήμψονται.
v2
οἱ γὰρ ἄρχοντες οὐκ εἰσὶν φόβος τῷ ἀγαθῷ ἔργῳ ἀλλὰ τῷ κακῷ. θέλεις δὲ μὴ φοβεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξουσίαν· τὸ ἀγαθὸν ποίει, καὶ ἕξεις ἔπαινον ἐξ αὐτῆς·
v3
θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν σοὶ εἰς τὸ ἀγαθόν. ἐὰν δὲ τὸ κακὸν ποιῇς, φοβοῦ· οὐ γὰρ εἰκῇ τὴν μάχαιραν φορεῖ· θεοῦ γὰρ διάκονός ἐστιν ἔκδικος εἰς ὀργὴν τῷ τὸ κακὸν πράσσοντι.
v4
διὸ ἀνάγκη ὑποτάσσεσθαι, οὐ μόνον διὰ τὴν ὀργὴν ἀλλὰ καὶ διὰ τὴν συνείδησιν.
v5
διὰ τοῦτο γὰρ καὶ φόρους τελεῖτε· λειτουργοὶ γὰρ θεοῦ εἰσιν εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο προσκαρτεροῦντες.
v6
ἀπόδοτε πᾶσιν τὰς ὀφειλάς,
τῷ τὸν φόρον τὸν φόρον,
τῷ τὸ τέλος τὸ τέλος,
τῷ τὸν φόβον τὸν φόβον,
τῷ τὴν τιμὴν τὴν τιμήν.
v7
οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν ἐξουσία εἰ μὴ ὑπὸ θεοῦ, αἱ δὲ οὖσαι ὑπὸ θεοῦ τεταγμέναι εἰσίν.
1 在上有權柄的,人人當順服他,因為沒有權柄不是出於上帝的。凡掌權的都是上帝所命的。
2 所以,抗拒掌權的就是抗拒上帝的命;抗拒的必自取刑罰。
3 作官的原不是叫行善的懼怕,乃是叫作惡的懼怕。你願意不懼怕掌權的嗎?你只要行善,就可得他的稱讚;
4 因為他是上帝的用人,是與你有益的。你若作惡,卻當懼怕,因為他不是空空地佩劍;他是上帝的用人,是伸冤的,刑罰那作惡的。
5 所以,你們必須順服,不但是因為刑罰,也是因為良心。
6 你們納糧,也為這個緣故;因他們是上帝的差役,常常特管這事。
7 凡人所當得的,就給他。當得糧的,給他納糧;當上税的,給他上税;當懼怕的,懼怕他;當恭敬的,恭敬他。
be subject to
the governing authorities
כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ
τάσσω—“place, order”
Jacob Taubes
Origen
俄利根
v1
v2
所有
靈魂
v3-4
v5-6
v7-8a
v8b-10
巨大的消極可能性
巨大的積極可能性
無爲

教會與政府之間:「順服掌權者」的神學反思
神學釋經
釋經史
羅馬書十三1-7
在上有權柄的,人人當順服他,因為沒有權柄不是出於上帝的。凡掌權的都是上帝所命的。
所以,抗拒掌權的就是抗拒上帝的命;抗拒的必自取刑罰。
ὑπό—“under”
作官的原不是叫行善的懼怕,乃是叫作惡的懼怕。
你願意不懼怕掌權的嗎?
你只要行善,就可得他的稱讚;
【順服的第二個理由】
【順服的第一個理由(反面論述)】
【順服的第一個理由】
ordinance
反抗
抗爭
對立
政權的功能與意義
因為他是上帝的用人,是與你有益的。
你若作惡,卻當懼怕,因為他不是空空地佩劍
他是上帝的用人,是伸冤的,刑罰那作惡的。
神的僕人

佩劍
(上帝的)忿怒
復仇
所以,你們必須順服,不但是因為刑罰,也是因為良心。
【小結】
需要
順服
良心
你們納糧,也為這個緣故;
因他們是上帝的差役,常常特管這事。
【應用】
滿足税務
Minister of God
從事 continue to, busy oneself with, devoted to
凡人所當得的,就給他。
當得糧的,給他納糧;
當得税的,給他上税;
當懼怕的,懼怕他;
當恭敬的,恭敬他。
Mark 12:17 「凱撒的物當歸給凱撒,上帝的物當歸給上帝。」
τὰ Καίσαρος ἀπόδοτε Καίσαρι καὶ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τῷ θεω

歸還
羅馬書十三1-7
“那麼基督徒在「順服」與「順從」這兩方面該如何平衡呢?在態度上,我們任何時候都要對地順服執政掌權者;在行動上,我們則可以不順從任何危害我們信仰實質的法令或意圖。「如果政府命令神所禁止的事,或禁止神所命令的事,我們作為基督徒明顯的責任,就是要抵抗而不服從。」”
基本釋經研究
Irenaeus Adv. o. h. V. 24, 1.
http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/0103524.htm
Calvin and Luther
John Howard Yoder
Politics of Jesus
(1) The New Testament speaks in many ways about the problem of the state; Romans 13 is not the center of this teaching.
(2) In the structure of the Epistle, chapters 12 and 13 in their entirety form one literary unit. Therefore, the text 13:1-7 cannot be under stood alone.
(3) The subordination that is called for recognizes whatever power exists, accepts what ever structure of sovereignty happen stop prevail. The text does not affirm, as the tradition has it, a divine act of institution or ordination of a particular government.
(4) The instructions to the Romans are to be subject to a government in whose administration they had no voice. The text cannot mean that Christians are called to do military or police service.
(5) The function of bearing the sword to which Christians are called to be subject is the judicial and police function; it does not refer to the death penalty or to war.
(6) The Christian who accepts subjection to government retains moral independence and judgment. The authority o f government is not self justifying. Whatever government exists is ordered by God; but the text does not say that whatever the government does or asks o f its citizens is good.
神學釋經
羅馬書釋義
Giorgio Agamben “Time that remains”
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