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Study of Personality Theories

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by

Derek Miller

on 14 October 2016

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Transcript of Study of Personality Theories

Personality Psychology
Psychodynamic Theories
Sigmund Freud
Medical doctor turned therapist
First to propose comprehensive theory of personality
Treated neurotic women; used INTROSPECTION on himself
Most known for work in dream interpretation
Report the MANIFEST Content
The experienced dream
Interpret the LATENT Conten
The "actual" dream
The "royal road to the unconscious"
Psychosexual stages of development
Oral
0-18 months
FOCUS: sucking, chewing, biting
If FIXATED: attachment issues
Fixation: failure to move forward as expected
Anal
18-36 months
FOCUS: Bowel/Bladder elimination
If FIXATED: "anal retentive" or "anal expulsive"
Phallic
3-6 years
FOCUS: Genital stimulation / incestuous feelings
ISSUES: Oedipus Complex (boys) / Penis Envy (girls)
Castration Anxiety (fear of being "found out")
and
If FIXATED: Impacts parent-child relationship
(Latency)
Genital
Puberty
FOCUS: Maturing sexual interests
ISSUES: Overcoming fixation from previous stages
Freud's Theory of Personality
Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Humanistic Theories
VS.
Kept concept of ego
redefined unconscious
Personal Unconscious
Collective Unconscious
The Collective Unconscious
Informs personality through ARCHTYPES
symbolic representations of abstract ideals (ex. good v. evil)
We develop "feelings of inferiority"
Compensate for by "striving for superiority"
Ultimately, strive to overcome inferior feelings
Carl Rogers
Abraham Maslow
Focused on Self-Concept
We will strive for Self-Fulfillment
Incongruence
Ideal Self
Real Self
Must have "unconditional postive regard"
genuineness
acceptance
empathy
"Who am I?"
Social Learning & Cognitive Theories
Self-Concept
Who am I?
What is my Identity?
Collectivistic
Individualistic
- identity primarily determined by orientation to group
- identity primarily determined by individual
(Cognitive)
Reciprocal Determinism (Bandura, 1986)
Locus of Control (Rotter, 1966)
Conditioning
Locus of Control (Rotter, 1966)
Internal LOC
external LOC
(PERCEPTION of Control)
Rorschach Ink Blot
Thematic Apperception Test
Projective Tests
Observation
Self-Efficacy
Inventories
Ex. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
Developed in 1939 to assess mental disorder
Still most widely used inventory
Different parts of test measure personality through three SCALES
Identifies personality structure AND psychopathology
factor analysis
Analyze personality traits/characteristics
statistically similar traits CATEGORIZED into FACTORS
Trait Theory
Origins and Theories
Traits and Factors
Categories
Groups
Types
Assessing Traits
http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/trait-theory.htm
Gordon Allport
Raymond Cattell
Hans Eysenck
The "Big Five" (Costa and McCrae)
So... HOW do you assess the unconscious, then?
from Rorschach (1924)
Full transcript