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Transcript of FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY
WHAT IS FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY
Sikolohiyang Pilipino is anchored on Filipino thought and experience as understood from a Filipino perspective . The most important aspect of this definition is the Filipino orientation. For centuries, Filipino behavior has been analyzed and interpreted in the light of Western theories. Since these theories are inevitably culture-bound, the picture of the Filipino has been inaccurate, if not distorted. Enriquez later defined Sikolohiyang Pilipino as ‘‘the study of diwa (‘psyche’), which in Filipino directly refers to
the wealth of ideas referred to by the philosophical concept of ‘essence’ and an entire range of psychological concepts from awareness to motives to behavior’’
WHO IS THE FATHER OF FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY?
Virgilio G. Enriquez is known as the Father of Filipino Psychology "Ama ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino", and the founder of the Pambansang Samahan sa Sikolohiyang Pilipino, (National Organization of Filipino Psychology), which started in 1975. Enriquez' initial proposal that a Filipino concept of personhood centered on the core value expressed in the word Kapwa, a Tagalog word that covers the concepts of both "self" and "others," has been expanded by those who studied under him, resulting in an entire system that seeks to describe the Filipino's sense of being a person, and an entire field of study that differentiates the Filipino's sense of being from those of other cultures, especially the western cultures.
Academic Scientific Psychology or Akademiko-siyentipikal na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This follows the tradition of Wilhelm Wundt in 1876 and is essentially the American-oriented Western psychology being studied in the Philippines.
Academic Philosophic Psychology or Akademiko-pilosopiya na Sikolohiya: Western Tradition: This was started by priest-professors at the University of Santo Tomas. This tradition is mainly focused on what is called 'Rational psychology'.
Ethnic Psychology or Taal na Sikolohiya: This is the tradition on which Philippine psychology is primarily based. This refers to the indigenous concepts that are studied using indigenous psychological orientation and methodologies.
Psycho-medical Religious Psychology or Sikolohiyang Siko-medikal: The tradition that fuses native healing techniques and explains it in an indigenous religious context. A social scientist suggested that many poor Filipinos are considered superstitious as a result of Catholic dogmatism, characterized by a vague combination of animism and Catholic beliefs. The majority of Filipinos are poor and religion has become an important facet of life, to the extent that some disbelieve in science. Many foreigners look down on Filipinos, going as far as calling them slaves. That is why when working as domestic helpers, many Filipinos report cases of work-related abuse.
Core value or Kapwa (togetherness)
Kapwa, meaning 'togetherness', is the core construct of Filipino Psychology. Kapwa refers to community; not doing things alone. Kapwa has two categories, Ibang Tao (other people) and Hindi Ibang Tao (not other people). Filipinos value conformity because unlike non-Asian countries, its culture is predominantly Confucian. This runs into conflict with individualism (kanya-kanya) which was brought about by Western colonialism.
Linking socio-personal value
Pakiramdam: Shared inner perceptions. Filipinos use damdam, or the inner perception of others' emotions, as a basic tool to guide his dealings with other people.
Linking socio-personal value/Kagandahang-Loob: Shared humanity. This refers to being able to help other people in dire need due to a perception of being together as a part of one Filipino humanity.
Accommodative surface values
Hiya: Loosely translated as 'shame' by most Western psychologists, Hiya is actually 'sense of propriety'.
Utang na loob: Norm of reciprocity. Filipinos are expected by their neighbors to return favors—whether these were asked for or not—when it is needed or wanted.
Pakikisama and Pakikipagkapwa: Smooth Interpersonal Relationship, or SIR, as coined by Lynch (1961 and 1973). This attitude is primarily guided by conformity with the majority.
Confrontative surface values
Bahala Na: Bahala Na translates literally as "leave it up to God (Bathala)" and it is used as an expression, almost universally, in Filipino culture. Filipinos engage in the bahala na attitude as a culture-influenced adaptive coping strategy when faced with challenging situations.
Lakas ng Loob: This attitude is characterized by being courageous in the midst of problems and uncertainties.
Pakikibaka: Literally in English, it means concurrent clashes. It refers to the ability of the Filipino to undertake revolutions and uprisings against a common enemy.
Karangalan: Loosely translated to dignity, this actually refers to what other people see in a person and how they use that information to make a stand or judge about his/her worth.
Puri: the external aspect of dignity. May refer to how other people judge a person of his/her worth. This compels a common Filipino to conform to social norms, regardless how obsolete they are.
Dangal: the internal aspect of dignity. May refer to how a person judges his own worth.
Katarungan: Loosely translated to justice, this actually refers to equity in giving rewards to a person.
Kalayaan: Freedom and mobility. Ironically, this may clash with the less important value of pakikisama or pakikibagay (conformity).
APPROACHES & METHODS
Pakikipagkuwentuhan: In this method, the researcher engages in a story-telling with an umpukan. The researcher merely serves as the facilitator, while the kalahok or participants are the one who are to talk. The term kwento, from the Spanish word cuento, literally means 'to tell a story'.
Panunuluyan: In this method, the researcher stays in the home of his kalahok or participant while he conducts the research with consent by the host family, whose head serves as the tulay to an umpukan. The term tuloy, which is the root word of the term panunuluyan, literally means 'to go in'.
Pagdadalaw-dalaw: In this method, the researcher occasionally visits the house of his host or tulay, as opposed to staying in the house. The term dalaw literally means 'visit'.
Pagtatanung-tanong: In this method, the researcher undergoes a kind of questioning session with his kalahok or participants. In this method, however, 'lead questions' (those questions which directly refer to the topic being studied) are not supposed to be asked, instead the questions to be asked are supposed to have been derived from the kalahok's answers themselves. The word tanong literally means 'question'.
Pakikiramdam: In this approach, the researcher uses entirely his/her own feelings or emotions to justify if his participants or kalahok are ready to be part of his research or not. The term damdam literally means 'inner perception of emotions'.
Psychopatlogy & Manifestation of universal mental disorders
Filipino psychopathology, or sikopatolohiya in Filipino, from Spanish psicopatologia, is the study of abnormal psychology in the Filipino context. Several mental disorders have been identified that can be found only in the Philippines or in other nations with which Filipinos share racial connections. Examples of such are:Amok: Malayan mood disorder, more aptly called 'Austronesian Mood Disorder', in which a person suddenly loses control of himself and goes into a killing frenzy, after which he/she hallucinates and falls into a trance. After he/she wakes up, he has absolutely no memory of the event.
Bangungot: A relatively common occurrence in which a person suddenly loses control of his respiration and digestion, and falls into a coma and ultimately to death. The person is believed to dream of falling into a deep abyss at the onset of his death. This syndrome has been repeatedly linked to Thailand's Brugada syndrome and to the ingestion of rice. However, no such medical ties have been proven.
Manifestation of universal mental disorders
Filipino psychopathology also refers to the different manifestations of mental disorders in Filipino people. One example of such is the manifestation of depression and schizophrenia in Filipinos, which are for the most part, less violet.
Ibang Tao ("outsider") There are five domains in this construct:
Pakikitungo: civility - In Confucian ethics, right behavior meant right demeanor towards authorities (Parents, Elders, etc.).
Pakikisalamuha: act of mixing - This is a social value that is primarily communitarian and Confucian. It espouses the ability to adapt.
Pakikilahok: act of joining - This translates to participation of the entire community to help a person.
Pakikibagay: conformity - This runs into conflict with individuality which many Filipinos in fact willingly throw away in favor of conformity with demands of those who are in charge.
Pakikisama: being united with the group.
Hindi Ibang Tao ("one-of-us") There are three domains in this construct:
Pakikipagpalagayang-loob: act of mutual trust
Pakikisangkot: act of joining others
Pakikipagkaisa: being one with others
Filipino psychomedicine, or sikomedikal na sikolohiya in Filipino, is the application of basic psychology to native healing practices loosely considered as 'medicine'. These practices are closely tied to the faith healers, as well as to the native pagan priestesses like the babaylan or katalonan, who were suppressed by the Spaniards during their colonization of the Philippines.
Examples of such practices include:
Hilot: The use of massage to aid a pregnant mother in the delivery of her child.
Kulam: Hex or bewitchment.
Lihi: An intense craving for something or someone during pregnancy. Faith healers or manghihilot testify that if the craving is not satisfied, abnormality of the child may result.
Pasma: A concept that explains how init (heat) and lamig (cold) together can result in illness, especially rheumatism.
Susto: Soul-flight. Derived from Latin American traditions.
Pagtatawas: A method of diagnosing illness wherein alum (called tawas) is ritualistically used by the albularyo or medicine man for diagnosis of a variety of health conditions. The tawas is used to 'cross' (sign of the cross) the forehead and other suspicious or ailing parts of the body as prayers are being whispered (bulong or oracion). It is then placed on glowing embers, removed when it starts to crack, then transferred to a small receptacle of water. As it cools, its softened form spreads on the water surface and assumes a shape that may suggest the cause of the illness, often one of several indigenous forces: dwarfs, devils or other evil spirits (na-nuno, na-kulam, na-demonyo). The water in the vehicle is then used to anoint the ailing part or parts of the body to counteract the evil forces or illness. The tawas is then discarded and thrown westward, preferably into the setting sun.
Usog: A concept that explains how a baby who has been greeted by a stranger acquires a mysterious illness. Apparently derived from the Spanish tradition of Mal de Ojo.
Gabâ or gabaa: The Visayan concept of negative Karma.
PSYCHO-MEDICINE & FAITH HEALERS
The spread of Sikolohiyang Pilipino outside the Philippines
During his lifetime, Enriquez traveled a lot and in some cases lived for some time in various countries to teach, do research, and participate in conferences. It was during these trips that
he was able to influence scholars living abroad (Filipinos and foreigners) to take a keen interest in Sikolohiyang Pilipino. This brought them together in various occasions and eventually led them to set up organizations and associations that supported the goals of Sikolohiyang Pilipino.
In the 1970’s and 1980’s there were quite a number of these organizations in the UnitedStates (San Francisco and New Haven), Japan, Malaysia, Thailand and Hongkong. With thedeath of Enriquez, however, only one has managed to continue with its activities and this is the association in San Francisco, California. However, there are still a number of individuals in these countries who believe in the Sikolohiyang Pilipino orientation and tradition though
they may no longer have the organizational expression.
SPREAD OF FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY OUTSIDE THE PHILIPPINES