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CGHS Biology: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

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by

Sean Holder

on 1 December 2015

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Transcript of CGHS Biology: Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Important Structures
Two structures allow for all the reactants (things needed for photosynthesis) to enter the plants.
Light Reactions
Photosystems II
Plants absorb light primarily using the pigment chlorophyll, which is the reason that most plants have a green color.
Factors that Affect Photosynthesis
Light Intensity
Stomata Opening
Carbon Dioxide concentration
Temperature
Water
Cellular Energy
ATP - Adenine Triphosphate
ADP - Adenin Diphospate
Photosynthesis &
Cellular Respiration

Stomata
A pore on the underside of leaves and stem epidermis of a plant
Chloroplast
Important parts of the chlolorplast
Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis is the process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy, normally from the sun, into chemical energy that can be used to fuel the organisms' activities.
Stages of Photosynthesis
Light Reactions
In photosynthesis water, Carbon dioxide and sunlight are used to make glucose and Oxygen
All of this takes place in the chloroplast
Digging Deeper
Light Independent Reactions (Dark Reactions)
Light Reactions needs the sun and water

no light needed, CO2 is incorporated through the stomata of the leaf.

The stomata allows for exchange of gases for efficient photosynthesis and respiration to occur.
Thykloids: site of Light rxns.

Grana: a bunch of
thykloids

Stroma: site of
Dark rxns.

These two high energy molecules go into stage 2 of photosynthesis
Light is used in order for split water in the thykloids.
PHOTOLYSIS
Water molecule is split
Oxygen is released into the atmosphere
Two hydrogen atoms from molecules drive:
NADP --> NADPH
ADP --> ATP
Step 2: Light Independent or Dark Reactions
(Photosystems 1)
Light is not required
Takes place in the stroma
Given the name CARBON FIXATION (Calvin Benson Cycle) BECAUSE IT WILL NOW FIX CARBON DIOXIDE CHEMICALLY TO FORM GLUCOSE.
The enzyme Rubisco is an important enzyme in the carbon fixation process.
The high energy NADPH and ATP that were made in the light reactions are used to trigger dark reactions
Low light decrease photosynthesis. Increased light increases photosynthesis until it levels off.
When stomata is open, increase in gas exchange, photosynthesis rate increases
When stomata is closed, photosynthesis decreases
Increased carbon dioxide concentration increases the rate of photosynthesis.
Dark reactions can occur quicker = results in increased glucose production
Optimum temperature for photosynthesis is 25-35 degrees Celcius
At very high and low temperatures, enzymes become denatured and slows or stops the rate of photosynthesis
Any body processes use ATP
ATP when use turns into ADP
Energy is used
Energy is
recharged
Cellular Respiration
Process that releases energy by breaking down food molecules in the presence of oxygen; made up of glycolysis, Kreb Cycle, and electron transport chain

process by which glucose is broken down by cells in order to obtain cellular energy (ATP)
We get the glucose from food. Which molecule is the main source?
Two Types of Respiration
When Oxygen is used= AEROBIC RESPIRATION
When Oxygen is not used= ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION
C6H12O6 + O2 -->CO2 + H2O
+36-38 ATP
How do we generate this energy?
Three Steps:
Step 1: Glycolysis
Step 2: Kreb Cycle
Step 3: Electron Transfer Chain (Chemiosmosis)

Where does the process happen?
Cytoplasm- Stage 1
Mitochondria- Stage 2 and 3
GOAL? GLUCOSE IS BROKEN INTO TWO PARTS TO EXTRACT SOME ENERGY
OXYGEN IS NOT REQUIRED FOR THIS STAGE
WHERE? CYTOPLASM
RESULTS: 2 PYRUVIC ACID (NOT USABLE)
2 ATP (USABLE)
2 NADH2 (NOT USABLE)

STAGE 1 : GLYCOLYSIS: SPLITTING OF GLUCOSE
GOAL: EXTRACT MORE ENERGY. PYRUVIC ACID FURTHER BREAKS DOWN
WHERE: MITOCHONDRIA
CONDITIONS: OXYGEN MUST BE PRESENT
RESULTS: 2ATP
4 NADH2 ( UNUSABLE)
1 FADH2 (UNUSABLE)

Note: Organisms that do not use oxygen DO NOT go through stage 2 OR 3
CO2 is released in this stage!!

STAGE 2: KREB CYCLE
GOAL: ALL OF NADH2 AND FADH2 ARE CONVERTED TO ATP FINALLY HAVE A LOT OF USABLE ENERGY
36 MOLECULES OF ATP

WHERE: INNER MITOCHONDRIA MEMBRANE
CONDITIONS: OXYGEN IS REQUIRED

STAGE 3: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN- Oxidative Phosphorylation
GLUCOSE--> 2 LACTIC ACID+ 2 CARBON DIOXIDE + 2 ATP
Or
Glucose --> 2 ethanol + 2 carbon dioxide+ 2 ATP
WHEN OXYGEN IS NOT PRESENT (ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION)
CALLED FERMENTATION
ONLY STAGE 1(GLYCOLYSIS) OCCURS
GET 2 ATP MOLECULES
SOME BACTERIA AND YEAST GET ENERGY FROM THIS PROCESS
Do we (humans)ever go through anaerobic respiration?
Absolutely - ever hear the phrase
"feel the burn?"
When we have high demands for oxygen and can not meet that demand (oxygen debt like during vigorous exercise) our body will also use anaerobic respiration to make ATP.
Results in a build up of lactic acid in our muscle cells- sore muscles after working out
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