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Unit 3 AOS 1 Stress

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Breanna Alexander

on 3 January 2017

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Transcript of Unit 3 AOS 1 Stress

Stress
what is stress?
a
state
of
physiological and psychological arousal
(stress response)
produced by
internal
or
external stressors
that are
perceived
by the individual
as challenging

or exceeding their ability
or
resources
to
cope
.
External stressors
Internal stressors
Types of stress responses
acute stress
chronic stress
mild stress response
can be stimulating, exhilarating, motivating, challenging and sometimes even desirable
high stress (arousal) for short period of time
increased arousal (stress) for long period of time
Di
stress
or
Eu
stress
Activity
Balloon Game
1. grab a balloon
2. listen to each scenario given by the teacher
3. blow into the balloon if you think that scenario is stressful
4. let air out if it would be stressful but exciting
5. if your balloon bursts, grab another balloon to keep going
6. keep a tally of all of the balloons that you burst
7. tie your balloon when finished
ACTIVITY
External stressors
catastrophes
life events
daily pressures
eustress vs distress activity
Stress Response
Eustress vs. Distress
1.
work in
pairs
2.
read the person
descriptions
thoroughly
3.
write down which
stressors

would result
in
eustress or distress
in each of the people described
4.
dont use the same stressor for each person
- identify which one applies to the

person the most
Extension Activity
In pairs, develop a
character description
based on the
types of responses (eustress or distress)
each person has to
each stressor
Reflection
What is stress?

What are the two main categories of stressors?

What are some examples of external stressors?

What are some examples of internal stressors?

Is all stress bad? Why, why not?

What is eustress? Give an example

What is distress? Give an example

Acculturative Stress
the psychological impact of adaptating to a new culture
Learning intention:
To
describe
the different
sources of
stress
and
stressors

as well as the
difference
between
eustress
and
distress
.
Eustress:

short term
not harmful
good stress
feel enthusiastic, motivated, excited, active and alert


Distress:

short or long term
harmful
bad stress
feel angry, anxious, nervous, irritable or tense
Stress response (elevated heart rate, rapid breath)
Stress as a psychological process
Learning intention:

To explore the various emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes that occur in response to stress
How do you know when someone is stressed?
Psychological changes

emotional
cognitive
Emotional
effects
Feeling:
anxious
tense
depressed
angry
irritable
short-tempered
Impact:
Cognitive effects
influence a person’s
mental abilities, such as their perceptions of their
circumstances and environment, their ability to
learn and how they think.
influence the way a person feels
Thinking:
all is hopeless
nothing I can do
this is the worst
I am so overwhelmed
this is too difficult to cope with
Impact:
Emotion
cognition
(thought)
Behaviour
Catastrophising
A type of
negative thinking
in which an object or event is
perceived
as being far
more threatening, dangerous or
insufferable than it really is
and will result in the w
orst possible outcome
" I have an exam tomorrow, I am going to fail and my life will be over"
behavioural
apparent in how a
person looks, talks, acts and so on
Behavioural effects
Changes in behaviour may include:
strained facial expressions
agressive behaviour
innapropriate emotional displays
sleeping too much or too little
eating a poor diet
not exercising enough
withdrawing from social activities
difficulty getting motivated

Impact:
ACTIVITY
1.
Get into groups of four
2.
Decide on a stressor (external or internal)
3.
Draw up a concept map outlining the different psychological responses to the stressor (emotional, cognitive, behavioural)
4.
Describe how these responses might influence each other
Reflection
What are the three psychological changes that occur in response to a stressor?

What are the differences between each change?

How do these changes interact with each other?

How might prior experience influence a persons psychological response to stress?

How might a persons interpretation of a stressor impact this response?
How do you know when someone is stressed?
Lesson Three
Physiological Stress Response
Learning intention:
To describe the physiological changes that occur in response to stress - including the
Fight-Flight-Freeze response
and
Seyle's General Adaption Syndrome

General Adaption Syndrome
(G.A.S)
The physiological process the body goes through in response to all stressors, as described by Hans Selye.
Think about a time you were stressed.

What did it feel like?

How did you know you were stressed?

Random facts about Stress
Under extreme stress,
some octopuses will eat their own arms.

Your body
can't tell the difference between a big stress
and
a small one
.

Stress can
lead to weight gain
.

People who are chronically stressed are much
more likely to catch a common cold
.

Heart rate and blood pressure rise with stress, leading to a
greater risk of cardiovascular diseases
.

Stress can also
cause stroke
, especially in middle age and older adults.

In times of stress, the muscles become tensed and can
trigger migraines, headaches, and other musculoskeletal problems.

The
fight–flight-freeze
response is an
involuntary
reaction resulting in a state of
physiological
readiness
to deal with an
immediate
threat
by either:

confronting
it (
‘fight’
)

running away
to safety (
‘flight’
)
keeping absoultely
still and silent
(
'freeze'
)
Fight - Flight - Freeze
Fight-flight physiological changes
increased heart rate and blood pressure
blood supply moves away from organs to muscles (for quick action)
breathing (respiration) speed increases (more oxygen)
increased glucose secretion by liver = more energy
pupils dilate (allow more light in)
supression of all uneccesary functions (i.e. digestion)
The
fight–flight-freeze
response involves both the autonomic
nervous system
and the
endocrine (hormone) system
When a threat (or any other acute stressor) is perceived, the hypothalamus is
activated.

They hypothalamus activates the sympathetic
nervous system (SNS) within milliseconds.

The SNS then stimulates the adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland (located just above each kidney).

When the adrenal glands are stimulated, they
secrete hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

These ‘stress hormones’ circulate in the bloodstream resulting in the physiological reactions that characterise the fight–flight response.
Acute stressor precieved
Activate hypothalumus
Activate SNS
Send message to adrenal gland
Release adrenaline and noradreniline
Stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) cause physiological changes
Once
threat is removed
, the
parasympathetic system
of the ANS kicks in to restore us
back to homeostasis
Activation of the HPA axis
If
threat (or stressor) is not removed
or we need to
deal with it over time
(i.e. a
chronic
stressor
) the hypothalamicpituitary-
adrenocortical axis
(HPA) axis is activated

Fight or flight response
only able to be
sustained
for
short periods
Activity
Your task:

In pairs -
research
the different
processes
involved in
HPA axis
Draw up a
poster/diagram
explaining the role of the HPA axis and the process involved in response to stress

Make sure you explain the following:

-
systems
involved
-
hormones
involved
-
function
of each component

*if time, describe
the difference between HPA and fight-flight
response
Lesson Four
Learning intention:
To explore Seyle's
General Adaption Syndrome
(GAS) explaining the
physiological changes
that occur in
response to stress
Reflection Questions
1.
What is the flight-flight-freeze response?
2.
What type of stressor can initiate that response?
3.
Describe a flight-fight-freeze response you have experienced and any phyisiological changes that would have occured
4.
Explain why the fight-flight-freeze response cannot be conciously controlled
5.
What stress hormones are released during the fight-flight-freeze response?
6.
What is the role of the adrenal glands in physiological responses to stress?
The body
first prepares for action and defence
, if necessary
resists
, and then it
returns to normal
GAS
1. alarm
2. resistance
3. exhaustion

=illness/death
Case Study
Your task:

-in the same groups as before, develop a case study of a person following the stages of Seyle's GAS

1. identify the stressor (must be long term (chronic) in nature
2. develop a character (name, age, gender, job)
2. describe what physiological changes that would occur in each stage
3. also suggest barriers for them to return to homeostasis at each stage
4. present to class
What are the three stages of Seyle's GAS?

What happens during the exhaustion stage?

How might chronic stress lead to illness or death?

What barriers could there be to a person returning to homeostasis?

What are some strategies for reducing stress?
Reflection
Lesson Five
To examine Lazarus and Folkman’s
Transactional Model of
Stress and Coping
What is stress?

What is coping?
Coping:
the process of constantly changing
cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal and/or external stressors
that are
appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources
of the person
Stress:
a state of
physiological and psychological arousal
produced by
internal
or
external stressors
that are
perceived
by the individual as
challenging
or
exceeding
their
ability or resources to cope
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Stress seen as a transaction between person and external environment
Individual evaluations (
appraisals
) of stressor = ability to cope
appraisals
Primary
Secondary
is it stressful?
do i have the resources to cope?
Primary Appraisal
Initial evaluation of stressor - is it...


irrelevant?

benign-positive (stressful but not harmful)?

stressful?
If evaluated as
stressful
, we decide if it is:
Harm/loss
Threat
Challenge
if stressor in the past (breakup)
potential for gain or growth
anticipation of future stressors
Secondary appraisals
Evaluate
coping resources
coping strategies
Reappraisals
Later evaluations of stressor
is it still stressful?
do I still have enough resources to cope?
What is an appraisal?

Name and describe the three types of primary appraisals that can be made of a stressor

What is the difference between a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal?

Why might there be individual differences in primary appraisals? How might this relate to secondary appraisals?
Reflection
Coping strategies
Behavioural and cognitive efforts to manage internal or external stressors
"Things we do to help manage the things that make us stressed"
Avoidance
Approach
Pair Activity
1. Pick out two scenarios
for your team
2. Identify examples of strategies
someone could use to
cope
with the stressors
- include both
approach and avoidance strategies
3.
Based on what you have learnt about
context-specific effectiveness
,
identify which strategy would work best in each situation

1.
What is the key difference between avoidance and approach coping strategies?


2.
Define context-specific effectiveness and coping flexibility

3.
For each of the following statements, name the type of coping strategy used to manage the stressor:
I talk to someone about how I feel
I try to come up with a strategy about what to do
I look for something positive in what is happening
I focus on my school work to take my mind off things
I let my feelings out
I learn to live with it
what is a stressor?
Virtually anything can be a
source of stress
and therefore a stressor.
major stress
flooding, bushfires, Tsunami’s, 911 etc
marriage, graduation, examinations
assault, car accident, being robbed
schedule, money, work, school, relationships
Life events- Holme’s Rahe Stress Scale
Holmes and Rahe then developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure stress in terms of life events.

The scale included 43 life events and each one was assigned a numerical rating that estimates its relative impact in terms of life change units.

Research conducted by Holmes and Rahe found that people who score 200 life change units or more within a 12-month period are more prone to physical and psychological stress-related illnesses or diseases.

Your turn to complete the (adjusted) scale...
Catastrophes
A catastrophe is an u
npredictable event
that
causes widespread damage or suffering
.
The event is a stressor of massive proportion — one that the
majority

of people involved would interpret as being stressful.

It usually
occurs suddenly
,
affects many people
simultaneously and is completely
out of their control
.
Daily pressures
These daily pressures or hassles are l
ittle problems of everyday living that are irritants
— events that annoy or bother us.
Can be
regular/rare
and can have a
strong/slight effect.

Not necessarily significant in themselves or distressing for a prolonged time, but they can
pile up to become a major source of stress

Not readily identified as stressors because they are such a part of everyday life that they may be
taken for granted.

Life events
Involves change that forces us to adapt to new circumstances
Major stress
A major stressor is an event that
is extraordinarily stressful
or disturbing for almost everyone who experiences it.

It may be a single,
one-off event
, such as being the victim of a violent crime
or it may be an ongoing
, unrelenting event, such as a terminal illness.
Symptoms of psychological trauma as a result of a major stressor:

physical:
hypervigilance (i.e. excessive alertness, on the lookout for signs of danger); easily startled; fatigue/exhaustion; disturbed sleep; general aches and pains

cognitive:
intrusive thoughts and recurring memories of the event; visual images of the event; nightmares; poor concentration and memory; disorientation; confusion

behavioural:
avoidance of places or activities that are reminders of the event; social withdrawal and isolation; loss of interest in normal activities

emotional:
fear; numbness and detachment; depression; guilt; anger and irritability; anxiety and panic.

Two models for describing and explaining
physiological responses to a stressor are called the
fight–flight–freeze
response and the
general adaptation
syndrome.
Physiological stress response
Consists of three stages:
Alarm reaction (with shock and countershock)
Resistance
Exhaustion
Factors influencing how we respond to stress:
Prior experiences with stressors
Attitudes
Motivation
Self-esteem
Outlook on life
Personality
Coping
Perceptual control
External
Internal
Secondary appraisals continued
• If the
coping demands
of the situation are
perceived
as being
far greater than the resources
that are available, then we are likely to
experience a stress response
.

• The
discrepancy

that is
perceived
may also
trigger a search for additional or new resources
that can be
used to cope
with the stress.

Exercise
types
Types of stressors
Emotional state
Illnesses
Mental illness
Exercise
Benefits:

Physical exercise increases demands on the body for energy and in the process uses up the stress hormones.

Exercise can promote relaxation, thereby providing relief from stress symptoms.

Brain releases mood-enhancing beta-endorphins during exercise which relieve pain and increase a sense of wellbeing and relaxation

Can also work as distraction or time away from stressor
Avoidance
Involve efforts that evade a stressor and deal indirectly with it and its effects.

 Activity is focused away from the stressor and there is no attempt to actively confront the stressor and its causes.

 Include strategies that involve behavioural or emotional disengagement. For example, denial, distancing, procrastination, fantasy or wishful thinking, escape, substance abuse, oversleeping etc.
Approach
Involve efforts to confront a stressor and deal directly with it and its effects.

 Activity is focused towards the stressor, its causes and a solution that will address the underlying problem, issue or concern and minimise or eliminate its impact.
 Include strategies that involve engagement with the stressor. For example, seeking advice from an expert, accepting responsibility, venting to a friend etc.
Benefits:
More adaptive and effective
Fewer psychological symptoms
Function more effectively

Limitations:
May increase stress in short term while dealing with stressor
Requires a lot of energy and focus
Benefits:
Appropriate to use when nothing can be done
'Time out' from stressor may reduce stress
Focus on other stressors
Limitations:
Maladaptive
Only helpful in the short term - doesn't solve problem
Mental health issues
Hypertension and Cardio Vascular Disease

The
effectiveness of the coping strategy
used can be influenced by factors such as the
demands of the situation
and one’s
ability to adapt and modify the strategy
accordingly.

These two factors respectively are:

Context-specific effectiveness

Coping flexibility

Effectiveness of coping strategies
Look over
flow chart
of Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
(in physical copy only)

- draw symbols/write summary notes beside each section
Review activity
Activity
Use what you have learned about the TMSC to complete the worksheet provided
Coping
Learning intention
To understand context-specific effectiveness, coping flexibility and use of particular strategies (exercise and approach and avoidance strategies) for coping with stress.
Learning intention
General Adaption Syndrome

- see PowerPoint
Full transcript