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Unit 3 AOS 1 Stress

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Breanna Alexander

on 8 December 2016

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Transcript of Unit 3 AOS 1 Stress

Stress
what is stress?
a
state
of
physiological and psychological arousal
(stress response)
produced by
internal
or
external stressors
that are
perceived
by the individual
as challenging

or exceeding their ability
or
resources
to
cope
.
External stressors
Internal stressors
stress response =
physiological


or
psychological


change
in response to
stressor
Types of stress responses
acute stress
chronic stress
mild stress response
can be stimulating, exhilarating, motivating, challenging and sometimes even desirable
high stress (arousal) for short period of time
increased arousal (stress) for long period of time
Di
stress
or
Eu
stress
Activity
Balloon Game
1. grab a balloon
2.
listen to each scenario
given by the teacher
3.
blow into the balloon if you think that scenario is stressful
4. if your balloon bursts, grab another balloon to
keep going
5. keep a
tally
of all of the balloons that you burst
6. tie your balloon when finished
ACTIVITY
External stressors
catastrophes
significant life events
daily pressures
eustress vs distress activity
Psychological Stress Response
Eustress vs. Distress
1.
work in
pairs
2.
read the person
descriptions
thoroughly
3.
write down which
stressors

would result
in
eustress or distress
in each of the people described
4.
dont use the same stressor for each person
- identify which one applies to the

person the most
Extension Activity
In pairs, develop a
character description
based on the
types of responses (eustress or distress)
each person has to
each stressor
Reflection
What is stress?

What are the two main categories of stressors?

What are some examples of external stressors?

What are some examples of internal stressors?

What are the four types of stress?

Is all stress bad? Why, why not?

What is good stress? Give an example

What is bad stress? Give an example

What determines whether or not stress is bad or good?
Acculturative Stress
the psychological impact of adaptating to a new culture
Learning intention:
To
describe
the different
types
of
stress
and
stressors

as well as the
difference
between
eustress
and
distress
.
Eustress:

short term
not harmful
good stress
feel enthusiastic, motivated, excited, active and alert


Distress:

short or long term
harmful
bad stress
feel angry, anxious, nervous, irritable or tense
Stress response (elevated heart rate, rapid breath)
Stress as a psychological process
Learning intention:

To explore the various emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes that occur in response to stress
How do you know when someone is stressed?
Psychological changes

emotional
cognitive
Emotional
effects
Feeling:
anxious
tense
depressed
angry
irritable
short-tempered
Impact:
Cognitive effects
influence a person’s
mental abilities, such as their perceptions of their
circumstances and environment, their ability to
learn and how they think.
influence the way a person feels
Thinking:
all is hopeless
nothing I can do
this is the worst
I am so overwhelmed
this is too difficult to cope with
Impact:
Emotion
cognition
(thought)
Behaviour
Catastrophising
A type of
negative thinking
in which an object or event is
perceived
as being far
more threatening, dangerous or
insufferable than it really is
and will result in the w
orst possible outcome
" I have an exam tomorrow, I am going to fail and my life will be over"
behavioural
apparent in how a
person looks, talks, acts and so on
Behavioural effects
Changes in behaviour may include:
strained facial expressions
agressive behaviour
innapropriate emotional displays
sleeping too much or too little
eating a poor diet
not exercising enough
withdrawing from social activities
difficulty getting motivated

Impact:
ACTIVITY
1.
Get into groups of four
2.
Decide on a stressor (external or internal)
3.
Draw up a concept map outlining the different psychological responses to the stressor (emotional, cognitive, behavioural)
4.
Describe how these responses might influence each other
Reflection
What are the three psychological changes that occur in response to a stressor?

What are the differences between each change?

How do these changes interact with each other?

How might prior experience influence a persons psychological response to stress?

How might a persons interpretation of a stressor impact this response?
How do you know when someone is stressed?
Lesson Two
Lesson One
Lesson Three
Physiological Stress Response
Learning intention:
To describe the
physiological changes
that occur in
response to stress
-

including the
HPA axis
and the
Fight-Flight response

General Adaption Syndrome
(G.A.S)
The physiological process the body goes through in response to stress, as described by Hans Selye.
Consists of three stages:
Think about a time you were stressed.

What did it feel like?

How did you know you were stressed?

Random facts about Stress
Under extreme stress,
some octopuses will eat their own arms.

Your body
can't tell the difference between a big stress
and
a small one
.

Stress can
lead to weight gain
.

People who are chronically stressed are much
more likely to catch a common cold
.

Heart rate and blood pressure rise with stress, leading to a
greater risk of cardiovascular diseases
.

Stress can also
cause stroke
, especially in middle age and older adults.

In times of stress, the muscles become tensed and can
trigger migraines, headaches, and other musculoskeletal problems.

The
fight–flight
response is an
involuntary
reaction resulting in a state of
physiological
readiness
to deal with a
sudden and immediate
threat
by either
confronting
it (
‘fight’
) or
running
away
to safety (
‘flight’
).
Fight or Flight
Fight-flight physiological changes
increased heart rate and blood pressure
blood supply moves away from organs to muscles (for quick action)
breathing (respiration) speed increases (more oxygen)
increased glucose secretion by liver = more energy
pupils dilate (allow more light in)
supression of all uneccesary functions (i.e. digestion)
The
fight–flight
response involves both the autonomic
nervous system
and the
endocrine (hormone) system
When a threat (or any other acute stressor) is perceived, the hypothalamus is
activated.

They hypothalamus activates the sympathetic
nervous system (SNS) within milliseconds.

The SNS then stimulates the adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland (located just above each kidney).

When the adrenal glands are stimulated, they
secrete hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)

These ‘stress hormones’ circulate in the bloodstream resulting in the physiological reactions that characterise the fight–flight response.
Acute stressor precieved
Activate hypothalumus
Activate SNS
Send message to adrenal gland
Release adrenaline and noradreniline
Stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) cause physiological changes
Once
threat is removed
, the
parasympathetic system
of the ANS kicks in to restore us
back to homeostasis
Activation of the HPA axis
If
threat (or stressor) is not removed
or we need to
deal with it over time
(i.e. a
chronic
stressor
) the hypothalamicpituitary-
adrenocortical axis
(HPA) axis is activated

Fight or flight response
only able to be
sustained
for
short periods
Activity
Your task:

In pairs -
research
the different
processes
involved in
HPA axis
Draw up a
poster/diagram
explaining the role of the HPA axis and the process involved in response to stress

Make sure you explain the following:

-
systems
involved
-
hormones
involved
-
function
of each component

*if time, describe
the difference between HPA and fight-flight
response
Lesson Four
Learning intention:
To explore Seyle's
General Adaption Syndrome
(GAS) explaining the
physiological changes
that occur in
response to stress
Reflection Questions
1.
What is the flight-flight response?
2.
What type of stressor can initiate that response?
3.
Describe a flight-fight response you have experienced and any phyisiological changes that would have occured
4.
Explain why the fight-flight response cannot be conciously controlled
5.
What is the HPA axis?
6.
What stress hormones are released during the fight-flight response?
7.
What stress hormones are involved in the activation of the HPA axis?
8.
What is the role of the adrenal glands in physiological responses to stress?
Claims the body
first prepares for action and defence
, if necessary
resists
, and then it
returns to normal
However,
prolonged and unmanageable stress
leads to
tissue damage
, increased chance of
disease
and in extreme cases
death
Activity
Your task:

In groups, research
one
stage of GAS (alarm, resistance, exhaustion)

- develop a poster identifying the key aspects of your given stage (i.e.
what happens in this stage?
)

-present findings to class

*ensure you identify at least
two
real world implications/examples
of your stage


GAS
1. alarm
2. resistance
3. exhaustion

=illness/death
Case Study
Your task:

-in the same groups as before, develop a case study of a person following the stages of Seyle's GAS

1. identify the stressor (must be long term (chronic) in nature
2. develop a character (name, age, gender, job)
2. describe what physiological changes that would occur in each stage
3. also suggest barriers for them to return to homeostasis at each stage
4. present to class
What are the three stages of Seyle's GAS?

What happens during the exhaustion stage?

How might chronic stress lead to illness or death?

What barriers could there be to a person returning to homeostasis?

What are some strategies for reducing stress?
Reflection
Lesson Five
Lazarus and Folkman’s
Transactional Model of
Stress and Coping
Learning intention:
To explore the psychological determinants of the stress response
What is stress?

What is coping?
Coping:
the process of constantly
changing
cognitive and behavioural
efforts
to
manage
specific internal and/or external
stressors
that are
appraised
as taxing or
exceeding the resources
of the person
Stress:
a state of
physiological and psychological

arousal

produced by
internal or external
stressors
that are
perceived
by the individual
as challenging
or
exceeding their ability or resources to cope
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Stress seen as a transaction between person and external environment
Individual evaluations (
appraisals
) of stressor = ability to cope
appraisals
Primary
Secondary
is it stressful?
do i have the resources to cope?
Primary Appraisal
Initial evaluation of stressor - is it


irrelevant?

benign-positive (stressful but not harmful)?

stressful?
If evaluated as
stressful
, we decide if it is:
Harm/loss
Threat
Challenge
past stressors
potential for gain or growth
anticipation of future stressors
Secondary appraisals
Evaluate
coping resources
options for dealing with stress
Reappraisals
Later evaluations of stressor
is it still stressful?
do I still have enough resources to cope?
Your task:
Have a look over the list of stressors

1. Perform primary appraisals on each stressor:
-
Group them
into the following categories:
irrelevant
benign positive
stressful
- For those that you consider to be stressful, further
group them into
:
a) harm/loss
b)challenge
c) threat


2. Form groups of four and
c
ompare evaluations of each stressor
-
discuss differences
and reasons behind this
-relate back to
individual differences in evaluating stressors
-discuss
impact of secondary appraisals
- who might find it easier to cope with each stressor and why
-be prepared to
share with class
What is an appraisal?

Name and describe the three types of primary appraisals that can be made of a stressor

What is the difference between a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal?

What is meant by the term reappraisal?

Why might there be individual differences in primary appraisals? How might this relate to secondary appraisals?


Reflection
Lesson Six
Transanctional Model of Stress and Coping
Learning intention:
To investigate and understand the various coping strategies used in response to stress
You have a friends birthday tonight but you have an exam tomorrow that you havent studied for. What do you do?


You have just had a fight with your friend. You haven't spoken in a few days and you really miss them. You don't want this fight to ruin your friendship.

What do you do?


You have been having trouble sleeping lately and it is beginning to impact on your daily functioning. You feel tired all of the time and have no energy to spend time with friends or family.

What do you do?


Coping
Behavioural and cognitive efforts to manage internal or external stressors
"Things we do to help manage the things that make us stressed"
types
Emotion - focused
Problem - focused
Group Task
1. Develop a scenario
that would be considered stressful for you or your classmates
2.
Using your text book,
identify examples of strategies
the person could use to
cope
with the stressor
- include both
emotional focused
and
problem focused strategies
3. Develop a poster/concept map
using
images
to describe each strategy
4.
Present the
scenario
and the
potential strategies
to the class
1.
What is the key difference between emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies?

2.
For each of the following statements, name the type of coping strategy used to manage the stressor:
I talk to someone about how I feel
I try to come up with a strategy about what to do
I look for something positive in what is happening
I focus on my school work to take my mind off things
I let my feelings out
I learn to live with it
Full transcript