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Unit 3 AOS 1 Stress
Transcript of Unit 3 AOS 1 Stress
what is stress?
physiological and psychological arousal
by the individual
or exceeding their ability
Types of stress responses
mild stress response
can be stimulating, exhilarating, motivating, challenging and sometimes even desirable
high stress (arousal) for short period of time
increased arousal (stress) for long period of time
1. grab a balloon
2. listen to each scenario given by the teacher
3. blow into the balloon if you think that scenario is stressful
4. let air out if it would be stressful but exciting
5. if your balloon bursts, grab another balloon to keep going
6. keep a tally of all of the balloons that you burst
7. tie your balloon when finished
eustress vs distress activity
Eustress vs. Distress
read the person
write down which
eustress or distress
in each of the people described
dont use the same stressor for each person
- identify which one applies to the
person the most
In pairs, develop a
based on the
types of responses (eustress or distress)
each person has to
What is stress?
What are the two main categories of stressors?
What are some examples of external stressors?
What are some examples of internal stressors?
Is all stress bad? Why, why not?
What is eustress? Give an example
What is distress? Give an example
the psychological impact of adaptating to a new culture
as well as the
feel enthusiastic, motivated, excited, active and alert
short or long term
feel angry, anxious, nervous, irritable or tense
Stress response (elevated heart rate, rapid breath)
Stress as a psychological process
To explore the various emotional, cognitive and behavioural changes that occur in response to stress
How do you know when someone is stressed?
influence a person’s
mental abilities, such as their perceptions of their
circumstances and environment, their ability to
learn and how they think.
influence the way a person feels
all is hopeless
nothing I can do
this is the worst
I am so overwhelmed
this is too difficult to cope with
A type of
in which an object or event is
as being far
more threatening, dangerous or
insufferable than it really is
and will result in the w
orst possible outcome
" I have an exam tomorrow, I am going to fail and my life will be over"
apparent in how a
person looks, talks, acts and so on
Changes in behaviour may include:
strained facial expressions
innapropriate emotional displays
sleeping too much or too little
eating a poor diet
not exercising enough
withdrawing from social activities
difficulty getting motivated
Get into groups of four
Decide on a stressor (external or internal)
Draw up a concept map outlining the different psychological responses to the stressor (emotional, cognitive, behavioural)
Describe how these responses might influence each other
What are the three psychological changes that occur in response to a stressor?
What are the differences between each change?
How do these changes interact with each other?
How might prior experience influence a persons psychological response to stress?
How might a persons interpretation of a stressor impact this response?
How do you know when someone is stressed?
Physiological Stress Response
To describe the physiological changes that occur in response to stress - including the
Seyle's General Adaption Syndrome
General Adaption Syndrome
The physiological process the body goes through in response to all stressors, as described by Hans Selye.
Think about a time you were stressed.
What did it feel like?
How did you know you were stressed?
Random facts about Stress
Under extreme stress,
some octopuses will eat their own arms.
can't tell the difference between a big stress
a small one
lead to weight gain
People who are chronically stressed are much
more likely to catch a common cold
Heart rate and blood pressure rise with stress, leading to a
greater risk of cardiovascular diseases
Stress can also
, especially in middle age and older adults.
In times of stress, the muscles become tensed and can
trigger migraines, headaches, and other musculoskeletal problems.
response is an
reaction resulting in a state of
to deal with an
to safety (
still and silent
Fight - Flight - Freeze
Fight-flight physiological changes
increased heart rate and blood pressure
blood supply moves away from organs to muscles (for quick action)
breathing (respiration) speed increases (more oxygen)
increased glucose secretion by liver = more energy
pupils dilate (allow more light in)
supression of all uneccesary functions (i.e. digestion)
response involves both the autonomic
endocrine (hormone) system
When a threat (or any other acute stressor) is perceived, the hypothalamus is
They hypothalamus activates the sympathetic
nervous system (SNS) within milliseconds.
The SNS then stimulates the adrenal medulla, which is the inner part of the adrenal gland (located just above each kidney).
When the adrenal glands are stimulated, they
secrete hormones such as adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
These ‘stress hormones’ circulate in the bloodstream resulting in the physiological reactions that characterise the fight–flight response.
Acute stressor precieved
Send message to adrenal gland
Release adrenaline and noradreniline
Stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) cause physiological changes
threat is removed
of the ANS kicks in to restore us
back to homeostasis
Activation of the HPA axis
threat (or stressor) is not removed
or we need to
deal with it over time
) the hypothalamicpituitary-
(HPA) axis is activated
Fight or flight response
only able to be
In pairs -
Draw up a
explaining the role of the HPA axis and the process involved in response to stress
Make sure you explain the following:
of each component
*if time, describe
the difference between HPA and fight-flight
To explore Seyle's
General Adaption Syndrome
(GAS) explaining the
that occur in
response to stress
What is the flight-flight-freeze response?
What type of stressor can initiate that response?
Describe a flight-fight-freeze response you have experienced and any phyisiological changes that would have occured
Explain why the fight-flight-freeze response cannot be conciously controlled
What stress hormones are released during the fight-flight-freeze response?
What is the role of the adrenal glands in physiological responses to stress?
first prepares for action and defence
, if necessary
, and then it
returns to normal
-in the same groups as before, develop a case study of a person following the stages of Seyle's GAS
1. identify the stressor (must be long term (chronic) in nature
2. develop a character (name, age, gender, job)
2. describe what physiological changes that would occur in each stage
3. also suggest barriers for them to return to homeostasis at each stage
4. present to class
What are the three stages of Seyle's GAS?
What happens during the exhaustion stage?
How might chronic stress lead to illness or death?
What barriers could there be to a person returning to homeostasis?
What are some strategies for reducing stress?
To examine Lazarus and Folkman’s
Transactional Model of
Stress and Coping
What is stress?
What is coping?
the process of constantly changing
cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage specific internal and/or external stressors
appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources
of the person
a state of
physiological and psychological arousal
by the individual as
ability or resources to cope
Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
Stress seen as a transaction between person and external environment
Individual evaluations (
) of stressor = ability to cope
is it stressful?
do i have the resources to cope?
Initial evaluation of stressor - is it...
benign-positive (stressful but not harmful)?
If evaluated as
, we decide if it is:
if stressor in the past (breakup)
potential for gain or growth
anticipation of future stressors
Later evaluations of stressor
is it still stressful?
do I still have enough resources to cope?
What is an appraisal?
Name and describe the three types of primary appraisals that can be made of a stressor
What is the difference between a primary appraisal and a secondary appraisal?
Why might there be individual differences in primary appraisals? How might this relate to secondary appraisals?
Behavioural and cognitive efforts to manage internal or external stressors
"Things we do to help manage the things that make us stressed"
1. Pick out two scenarios
for your team
2. Identify examples of strategies
someone could use to
with the stressors
- include both
approach and avoidance strategies
Based on what you have learnt about
identify which strategy would work best in each situation
What is the key difference between avoidance and approach coping strategies?
Define context-specific effectiveness and coping flexibility
For each of the following statements, name the type of coping strategy used to manage the stressor:
I talk to someone about how I feel
I try to come up with a strategy about what to do
I look for something positive in what is happening
I focus on my school work to take my mind off things
I let my feelings out
I learn to live with it
what is a stressor?
Virtually anything can be a
source of stress
and therefore a stressor.
flooding, bushfires, Tsunami’s, 911 etc
marriage, graduation, examinations
assault, car accident, being robbed
schedule, money, work, school, relationships
Life events- Holme’s Rahe Stress Scale
Holmes and Rahe then developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure stress in terms of life events.
The scale included 43 life events and each one was assigned a numerical rating that estimates its relative impact in terms of life change units.
Research conducted by Holmes and Rahe found that people who score 200 life change units or more within a 12-month period are more prone to physical and psychological stress-related illnesses or diseases.
Your turn to complete the (adjusted) scale...
A catastrophe is an u
causes widespread damage or suffering
The event is a stressor of massive proportion — one that the
of people involved would interpret as being stressful.
affects many people
simultaneously and is completely
out of their control
These daily pressures or hassles are l
ittle problems of everyday living that are irritants
— events that annoy or bother us.
and can have a
Not necessarily significant in themselves or distressing for a prolonged time, but they can
pile up to become a major source of stress
Not readily identified as stressors because they are such a part of everyday life that they may be
taken for granted.
Involves change that forces us to adapt to new circumstances
A major stressor is an event that
is extraordinarily stressful
or disturbing for almost everyone who experiences it.
It may be a single,
, such as being the victim of a violent crime
or it may be an ongoing
, unrelenting event, such as a terminal illness.
Symptoms of psychological trauma as a result of a major stressor:
hypervigilance (i.e. excessive alertness, on the lookout for signs of danger); easily startled; fatigue/exhaustion; disturbed sleep; general aches and pains
intrusive thoughts and recurring memories of the event; visual images of the event; nightmares; poor concentration and memory; disorientation; confusion
avoidance of places or activities that are reminders of the event; social withdrawal and isolation; loss of interest in normal activities
fear; numbness and detachment; depression; guilt; anger and irritability; anxiety and panic.
Two models for describing and explaining
physiological responses to a stressor are called the
response and the
Physiological stress response
Consists of three stages:
Alarm reaction (with shock and countershock)
Factors influencing how we respond to stress:
Prior experiences with stressors
Outlook on life
Secondary appraisals continued
• If the
of the situation are
far greater than the resources
that are available, then we are likely to
experience a stress response
trigger a search for additional or new resources
that can be
used to cope
with the stress.
Types of stressors
Physical exercise increases demands on the body for energy and in the process uses up the stress hormones.
Exercise can promote relaxation, thereby providing relief from stress symptoms.
Brain releases mood-enhancing beta-endorphins during exercise which relieve pain and increase a sense of wellbeing and relaxation
Can also work as distraction or time away from stressor
Involve efforts that evade a stressor and deal indirectly with it and its effects.
Activity is focused away from the stressor and there is no attempt to actively confront the stressor and its causes.
Include strategies that involve behavioural or emotional disengagement. For example, denial, distancing, procrastination, fantasy or wishful thinking, escape, substance abuse, oversleeping etc.
Involve efforts to confront a stressor and deal directly with it and its effects.
Activity is focused towards the stressor, its causes and a solution that will address the underlying problem, issue or concern and minimise or eliminate its impact.
Include strategies that involve engagement with the stressor. For example, seeking advice from an expert, accepting responsibility, venting to a friend etc.
More adaptive and effective
Fewer psychological symptoms
Function more effectively
May increase stress in short term while dealing with stressor
Requires a lot of energy and focus
Appropriate to use when nothing can be done
'Time out' from stressor may reduce stress
Focus on other stressors
Only helpful in the short term - doesn't solve problem
Mental health issues
Hypertension and Cardio Vascular Disease
effectiveness of the coping strategy
used can be influenced by factors such as the
demands of the situation
ability to adapt and modify the strategy
These two factors respectively are:
Effectiveness of coping strategies
of Lazarus and Folkman's Transactional Model of Stress and Coping
(in physical copy only)
- draw symbols/write summary notes beside each section
Use what you have learned about the TMSC to complete the worksheet provided
To understand context-specific effectiveness, coping flexibility and use of particular strategies (exercise and approach and avoidance strategies) for coping with stress.
General Adaption Syndrome
- see PowerPoint