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Transcript of Pragmatics
Semantics: the study of linguistic meaning (words, phrases, and sentences)
Syntax: the study of phrases, clauses, and sentences
Morphology: the study of word formation
Phonology: the study of the sound system of language FC What is pragmatics? If Jack says Kathy's cooking dinner tonight, and Jill replies with Better stock up on Alka-Seltzer, an observer might conclude that Kathy is not a good cook.
An appropriate answer to the question Do you have the time? might be 7:15; an inappropriate answer would be Yes. FC Examples of Language use and context Implicature: is what is implied.
Entailment: is an utterance result of implicature.
For example, John says to his wife, Mary, Uncle Chester is coming over for dinner tonight, and Mary responds with I guess I'd better hide the liquor. Mary's utterance raises the implicature that Uncle Chester has a drinking problem. FC Language Phenomena Representative
Declaration Taxomony of Illocutionary Acts Representative- An utterance use to describe some state of affairs (e.g., stating, asserting, denying, confessing, admitting, notifying, concluding, and predicting.) (Searle, 1976). Directive - An utterance used to try to get the hear to do something (e.g., requesting, ordering, forbidding, warning, advising, suggesting, insisting, or recommending) (Searle, 1976). Question utterance examples: Who won the debate? Or, Would you prefer less cheese? Question - An utterance used to try to get the hearer to provide information (e.g., asking or inquiring) (Searle, 1976). Commissive - An utterance used to commit the speaker to do something (e.g., promising, vowing, volunteering, offering, guaranteeing, pledging, and betting)(Searle, 1976). Expressive - An utterance used to express the speaker's emotional (e.g., apologizing, thanking, congratulating, condoling, welcoming, deploring, and objecting (Searle, 1976). Expressive utterance examples: Congratulations on your new job, or I apologize for my bad behavior. Declaration - An utterance used to change the status of some entity (e.g., appointing, naming, resigning, baptizing, surrendering, excommunicating, and arresting)(Searle, 1976). Expressed Locutionary Act Speech Acts Each speech act (speech event) has at least two facets to it: a locutionary act (act of saying something) & illocutionary act (act of doing something).
Locutionary Act: is deemed by uttering a sentence from a language.
Illucutionary Act: is deemed by the speaker doing such acts as the following: stating, requesting, questioning, promising, apologizing, and appointing. FC What is the difference between Explicit & Non-explicit Illocutionary Acts? Explicit/Performative: includes verbosity that is present tensed.
EXAMPLE: I deny that I killed Cock Robin. (representative)
EXAMPLE: I resign. (declaration)
Non-explicit/non-Performative: includes verbosity that is past tensed.
EXAMPLE: I did not kill Cock Robin. (representative)
EXAMPLE: I don't work here anymore. (declaration) FC What is the difference between Direct & Indirect Illocutionary Acts? Direct: is imperative/has force sentencing.
EXAMPLE: Clean up this mess.
EXAMPLE: Bring me my coat.
Indirect: is an indirect syntactic/passive sentencing that is suggestive
EXAMPLE: Would you clean up this mess?
EXAMPLE: You might want to get that. FC The utterance expresses the propositional content of the illocutionary act. It can be a prediction, promise or warning. "I promise I'll take you out to dinner." is an
because it doesn't predicate a future act of the hearer and it does not express the propositional act of the illocutionary act involved. on the other hand It is not always obvious if you are dealing with an expressed or implied locutionary act because the same utterance may contain an implied locution on one occasion, but an expressed locution on the other. "I sure could use a good meal." Implied Locutionary Act Expressed vs. Implied Locutionary Acts Literal vs. Nonliteral Locutionary Acts Does the speaker actually mean what he or she is saying? closely related to the Maxim of Quality literal non-literal "He broke my heart." "Your eyes are bigger than your stomach." "It's difficult to see in the fog." "Texting and driving is a great way to multi-task." "The table is dirty." sarcastic utterance or an utterance in which the literal interpretation would be impossible or absurd considering the context what is said is exactly what is meant Gricean Maxims Maxim of Quantity Maxim of Quality Maxim of Relation Maxim of Manner Each participant's contribution to a conversation should be no more or less informative than required.
Examples of violations:
Utterance: "Sarah, do you have a dollar?"
Response 1: "Yes."
Response 2: No, but I have three quarters, eight nickels, and 415 pennies." Each participant's contribution to the conversation should be expressed in a reasonably clear fashion. It should not be vague, ambiguous, or excessively wordy.
Examples of violations:
Utterance: "What's in the box?"
Response: "Jimmy's S-U-R-P-R-I-S-E"
"The stolen ring was found by the river."
"The boy spotted the man with the telescope." Each participant's contribution to the conversation should be relevant to the subject of the conversation.
Examples of Flouting:
Utterance: "Did you clean the bathroom?"
Response: "I ate lunch."
Utterance: "When is the pizza coming over?"
Response: "I already put the kids down to sleep." Each participant's contribution to the conversation should be truthful and based on sufficient evidence.
Examples of flouting:
"You are the light of my life."
Utterance: "When are you going back to work?
Response: "When pigs fly." 1 .According to Parker and Riley (2010), there are statements, assertions, denials, requests, commands, warning, promises vows, and so forth. Based upon this, how does this relate Steale's (1976) classifications of illocutionary acts (e.g., representative, directive, question, commissive, expressive, and declarative)? And, what generalizations can be made relative to the common core of language and utterances, with regard to the aforementioned classifications? EC
2. According to Parker and Riley (2010), John Austin's most fundamental insights was the realization that English contains a set of verbs, each of which actually names the illocutionary force of that verb (e.g., confess, warn, inquire, and apologize). To this end, what differences can performative verbs make, in the illucutionary acts? FC
3. According to Parker and Riley (2010), it is possible for an utterance to raise more than one implicature, or to raise different implicatures in different contexts. Bearing this in mind, what can be gleaned from the Gricean Maxims, in relation to pragmatic competence, in second language acquisition? HA Essential Questions?? According to Parker and Riley (2010), there are statements, assertions, denials, requests, commands, warning, promises vows, and so forth. Based upon this, how does this relate Steale's (1976) classifications of illocutionary acts (e.g., representative, directive, question, commissive, expressive, and declarative)? And, what generalizations can be made relative to the common core of language and utterances, with regard to the aforementioned classifications? References Essential Questions?? Flouting: The intentional violation of a maxim for the purpose of conveying an implied statement (implicature) or unstated proposition to the listener. Representative utterance examples: Jim teaches Math, or Sal sings gospel. Commissive utterance examples:
I will finish in 2013, or I will you you til death due us part. Directive utterances examples:
Take a bath, or Stop talking. Declarative utterance examples: You are fired, or I give up. Searle, J.R. (1976). The classification of illocutionary acts. Language in Society, 5, 1-24. Parker, F., & Riley, K., (2010). Linguistics For Non-Linguistics: A PRIMER WITH
EXERCISES. Boston: Pearson. Scott, J. & Borgman, J. (2012, August 28). Zits. Retrieved November 8, 2012
from http://zitscomics.com/comics/august-28-2012/ Dredge, P. (n.d.). We met speed dating, had a whirlwind romance..."
November 8, 2012 from