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Communication Technology & Society

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Lawrence Smith

on 27 October 2016

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Transcript of Communication Technology & Society

Communication Technology & Society
Immigrants & Natives
24 – Hours of video uploaded every minute onto YouTube
600k - new members on Facebook per day
900.000 -The number of blog posts put up every day
700 million – The number of photos uploaded per day on Facebook
955 million – People on Facebook
50% – Percentage of Facebook users that log in every day
126 million – The number of blogs on the Internet (as tracked by BlogPulse)
27.3 million – Number of tweets on Twitter per day (November, 2009)
57% – Percentage of Twitter’s user base located in the United States
4.25 million – People following @aplusk (Ashton Kutcher, Twitter’s most followed user).
Social Media Contribution
Total Media Use
Media Time by Platform
“I got up and instead of going to check my email like I normally do I sat on the couch not quite knowing what to do with myself. Usually I spend some time on the computer responding to emails and on Facebook catching up with friends… just in the first hour of being awake it stunned me to realize how much I am influenced without even thinking about it.”
“Midday my first cave in (because of necessity) occurred. I got a text that read, "randi, are you okay? We have been trying to get a hold of you all day and wanted to make sure your phone call last night wasn't important." The comment made me chuckle internally at the fact that my mother thought I was in trouble because I had not gotten in touch with her for a half of a day… The rest of the day consisted of fighting off the urge to text some one and actually eating dinner by myself because I did not know how to get a hold of my friends.”
“It was an experience I'll never forget--I was tense and high-strung, my thoughts constantly returning to the assignments I must have been missing and the people I was failing to get back to. I couldn't (with a clean conscience) look up my homework assignments on Blackboard, or print off notes, or call my classmate to find out whether or not there was a Hebrew quiz the next day. I felt isolated and somewhat helpless. All of my usual back-up plans, my connections, my relationships, were off limits.”
“My cell phone and laptop keep me in the driver’s seat. In control. When I can't use them, my control is diminished and I feel vulnerable, at the mercy of my circumstances.”
“it took me a couple of mistrials to start my fast (due to instinctual cell phone and music hook-ups). Once I stopped with the media it was almost as addicting as my cell phone or music.”
Social Network Effects on Ecology of Connecting
Now We Communicate in Very Different Ways…
Virtual Worlds (e.g., SecondLife)
Facebook “actions” such as pokes, nudges, etc.
IM/Instagramming instead of voice chat
Status updates
Bookmarking
Video sharing
Micro-blogging (Twitter)/Blogging
Snap-chatting
Life of a Native
It’s second-nature
Hardwired differently
Prefer information quickly
Learning is instant, relevant & fun
Life of an Immigrant
Nothing is natural
Old ways are better
Single or focused tasks
Prefer information in a logical sequential order
Changing Connectivity: Groups to Networks
Social Learning
Social computing comprises Digital applications for social networking (e.g. Facebook) video-sharing (e.g. YouTube) photo-sharing (e.g. Flickr) user-generated content (e.g. Wikipedia) multiplayer virtual online worlds (e.g. Second Life) Blogging Tagging, etc.
Classroom Paradigm Shift
New Classroom
Openness
Conversation
Collaboration
Access
Sharing
Transparent
Revision
“University classrooms are being transformed by social media… are you prepared to engage people the way they are comfortable being engaged – online and virtually?”
David Scott
Bloom’s Higher Order Thinking
Focus Questions
How can technology facilitate action-learning? (Action-learning stresses discussion, lab work, simulation, field experience, and team projects.)
How can technology help adapt subjects to different cognitive styles? (And incorporate more of the learner’s experience.)
How can technology help meet the “needs” (readiness to learn) of students? (A function of developmental tasks and roles encountered in life.)
How can technology help move us from subject-centered learning to problem-centered learning? (A function of application-immediacy.)
Learning Cycle
Technology
Digital Native
Densely Knit > Sparsely-Knit
Impermeable (Bounded) > Permeable
Broadly-Based Solidarity > Specialized Multiple Foci
Facilitates Medici Effect
What is Technology?
Ellul: the organized ensemble of all individual
techniques (standardized means) which are
used to secure an end result.
the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment.
Why Study Comm Tech?
Fascination with the novel (new)
Potential for profit (from change)
Lessons from previous successes/failures
Identify patterns of adoption, effects, economic opportunity, & competition
Result: prepared to understand, use, and/or compete with the next generation
Impact Factors
Enabling factors: make an application possible
Limiting factors: create barriers to innovation/implementation
Motivating factors: provide a reason for adoption
Inhibiting factors: provide a disincentive for adoption
A New Generation
Road Map to New Media
Production Technologies
technologies used in gathering and processing information
Distribution Technologies
used in transmission of information
Display Technologies
used for presenting information to end users/ consumers/ audiences
Storage Technologies
used for housing information
Progress
Faith & Technology
Technology ought to facilitate and not hinder our communion with God and the fulfillment of our moral obligations to Him.
Technology ought to facilitate and not hinder the preservation of human life and improvement of human welfare and the fulfillment of our moral obligations to people.
Technology ought to facilitate and not hinder the preservation of the natural world and its order and integrity and the fulfillment of our moral obligations to God’s lower creation.
Shalom/peace
Proportion/balance
Judgment
Listening (as opposed to trivial messaging)
Gratitude
Responsibility
Foster shared memory, caring practices, mutual accountability
Low
High
Voluntary
Involuntary
Compare
Digital Immigrant
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
Degree of Comfort/Skill
Degree of Choice
Digital Refugee
Virtual Communities
Digital Native
3 Critical Innovations
Microchips
(integrated circuits)
Fiber Optic Cables/Wireless
Digitization (binary code)
Foundational
Technology
Societal Changes
Globalization (interconnection of people)
Alters notions of time, space, & identity
Participatory culture
Cultural conformity
Consumerism
Triviality
No sense of technology as separate from experience
Hegemonic symbols
Indeterminacy of meaning in a text
Privacy
Connections
Technology Affordances
1993 – Mosaic browser introduced
1995 – Amazon & eBay launched
1997 - AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)
1999 – Pyra Labs releases 1st blogging software
2000 – Cookies become an electronic nuisance instead of something mom bakes
2002 – IMing is passé
2004 – FB launched
2005 – broadband becomes “mainstream”
2005 - Youtube created by 3 Paypal employees, sold to Google in 2006 for $1.65B
2006 - FB goes off campus in 2006 (IPO in 2012 raised $104B)
2006 - Twitter launched 140 character communication tool
2010 - Pinterest launched
2011 - Snapchat launched
2013 - Vine launched
Technology Challenges
Media Time by Platform
“It was an experience I'll never forget--I was tense and high-strung, my thoughts constantly returning to the assignments I must have been missing and the people I was failing to get back to. I couldn't (with a clean conscience) look up my homework assignments on Blackboard, or print off notes, or call my classmate to find out whether or not there was a Hebrew quiz the next day. I felt isolated and somewhat helpless. All of my usual back-up plans, my connections, my relationships, were off limits.”
“My cell phone and laptop keep me in the driver’s seat. In control. When I can't use them, my control is diminished and I feel vulnerable, at the mercy of my circumstances.”
“it took me a couple of mistrials to start my fast (due to instinctual cell phone and music hook-ups). Once I stopped with the media it was almost as addicting as my cell phone or music.”
1993 – Mosaic browser introduced
1995 – Amazon launched
1997 - AOL Instant Messenger (AIM)
1999 – Pyra Labs releases 1st blogging software
2000 – Cookies become an electronic nuisance instead of something mom bakes
2002 – IMing is passé
2003 – FB launched
2005 – broadband becomes “mainstream”
Web 2.0 Social Media
Social Network Effects on Ecology of Connecting
Now We Communicate in Very Different Ways…
Virtual Worlds (e.g., SecondLife)
Facebook “actions” such as pokes, nudges, etc.
IM instead of voice chat
Status updates
Bookmarking
Video sharing
Micro-blogging (Twitter)/Blogging
24 – Hours of video uploaded every minute onto YouTube
600k - new members on Facebook per day
900.000 -The number of blog posts put up every day
700 million – The number of photos uploaded per day on Facebook
400 million – People on Facebook
50% – Percentage of Facebook users that log in every day
126 million – The number of blogs on the Internet (as tracked by BlogPulse)
27.3 million – Number of tweets on Twitter per day (November, 2009)
57% – Percentage of Twitter’s user base located in the United States
4.25 million – People following @aplusk (Ashton Kutcher, Twitter’s most followed user).
Digital
Life of a Native
It’s second-nature
Hardwired differently
Prefer information quickly
Learning is instant, relavent and fun
Life of an Immigrant
Nothing is natural
Old ways are better
Single or focused tasks
Prefer information in a logical sequential order
Twitalyzer
Crime
http://pleaserobme.com/
"If I look at enough of your messaging and your location, and use Artificial Intelligence, we can predict where you are going to go.” - CEO of Google, Eric Schmidt
Predictive Modeling
“University classrooms are being transformed by social media… are you prepared to engage people the way they are comfortable being engaged – online and virtually?”
David Scott
Ellul: the organized ensemble of all individual
techniques (standardized means) which are
used to secure an end result.
the branch of knowledge that deals with the creation and use of technical means and their interrelation with life, society, and the environment.
"Social media is software that enables people to interact... and build social networks that increase social capital."
(Barnes, 2008)
Knowledge Base
Status Updates
Status Updates/Collaboration
Profiles
Customer Service
USGS on Twitter
Best Buy on Twitter
Dell in Second Life
Global Link in Second Life
PR in Second Life
Corp's in Second Life
Twitter: what are they saying about your organization?
http://business.twitter.com/twitter101/
http://www.slideshare.net/
Total Media Use
Dr. Ripley Smith
http://www.delicious.com/drsmith86
Affordances
Flexibility
Problem-solving
Collaboration
Innovation
Availability
Safety
Connectedness
Resourceful
Right-Brain Thinking
simultaneity
metaphorical thinking
aesthetic sensibility
contextual relationships
synthesis
Bloom’s Higher Order Thinking
Ethical
Challenges
Boundaries
Bad Behavior
Addiction
“Do not be conformed any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is – His good, pleasing, and perfect will.” (Rom. 12:2)
Traditions vs. Technology
Listening vs. messaging
Shalom (peace/rest/free from distraction)
Proportion/balance
Foster shared memory, caring practices, mutual accountability
Good judgment and responsibility
“Let us therefore make every effort to do what leads to peace and to mutual edification…” (Rom. 14:19)
“Search me, O’ God, and know my heart; test me and know my anxious thoughts. See if there is any offensive way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.” (Psa. 139:23-24).
Leadership
Paradigm
Shift

Changing Connectivity: Groups to Networks
2.0 Leadership
Openness
Conversation
Collaboration
Access
Sharing
Transparent
Revision
Bloom’s Higher Order Thinking
Densely Knit > Sparsely-Knit
Impermeable (Bounded) > Permeable
Broadly-Based Solidarity > Specialized Multiple Foci
Facilitates Medici Effect
Frustrated by:
physical distance
rapidity of change
opposing internal cultures
inflexible corporate identity
Encouraged by:
the number of interactions
the diversity of people talking about the adoption
Autocratic
Paradigm Characteristics
Medici Effect
Democratic
Laissez Faire
Trait
Situational
Functional
Transformational
Intelligent Applications
Twitalyzer
Crime
http://pleaserobme.com/
"If I look at enough of your messaging and your location, and use Artificial Intelligence, we can predict where you are going to go.” - CEO of Google, Eric Schmidt
Predictive Modeling
Knowledge Base
Status Updates
Status Updates/Collaboration
Customer Service
USGS on Twitter
Best Buy on Twitter
Dell in Second Life
Global Link in Second Life
PR in Second Life
Corp's in Second Life
Twitter: what are they saying about your organization?
http://business.twitter.com/twitter101/
http://www.slideshare.net/
http://www.delicious.com/drsmith86
Network Individualism
Concepts
Network Society
Hierarchically arranged, densely knit, bounded groups
permeable boundaries
diverse interactions
linkages switch b/t multiple networks
flatter, more complex hierarchies
Marked by:
Autonomy
Opportunity
Uncertainty
Network Capital
- how we contact, interact, and obtain resources from each other.
Portability
- ability to take connections, resources w/you; disembodied interaction, context-free
Awareness Transfer
- from socio-physical context to mediated "space."
Specialized Relationships
- based on shared interests
- complementary skills/resources
- varying degrees of involvement
- multiple solidarities
Proximity
- Isn't all communication at a distance?
Social Media Uses
Social Capital in Business
Comm Uses
Informational-cooperative
Socializing
Expressive
Strategic
Social Presence
What is Social Media?
Value of Social Capital
ROI: Social Media
What is Social Capital?
Social Capital in Business Relationships
Online Relationships
Dialectic
Magical Connections
Social Networking
Social Media
Social Media Advertising
Power of Social Media
Pseudo-identity & Distance
Relationship Capital
a measure of the perceptions inherent in the internal and external interactions among people, products, and organizations. (RNIA)
Changing Values & Ethics
Non-traditional sources
Media as socializing forces
New forms of relationship development
Emergence of social capital acquired via networking
Emergence of disinhibition effect (separated from words and actions)
Trust & Authenticity increasingly salient
CMC Attitudes
Online Social Connection (OSC) related to positive relational and psychosocial outcomes
Online Self-disclosure (OSD) associated with depression, loneliness, and negative psychosocial outcomes
OSD may not foster Facebook use the same way it does other anonymous, low-risk CMC
Relational Closeness
A subjective experience of intimacy, emotional affinity, and psychological bonding with another person
Network Ties
Strong - behavior reflecting emotionality, interdependence, and intimacy; multiplex media use
Weak - loosely connected, casual, superficial, mono/uni-plex media use
Strategies for Reducing Uncertainty
Passive
Active
Interactive
Extractive
Warrants
"the capacity to draw reliable connection between a presented persona online and a corporeally-anchored person in the physical world" (Walther et al., 2009, p.232).
Self-disclosure Online
Social awkwardness
Anonymity
Shared interests
Lack of physical presence (circumspection)
Use of URT strategies correlates with disclosure of more personal information
Findings (Gibbs, et al., 2010)
Greater personal security concerns => greater uncertainty reduction strategies*
Greater misrepresentation concerns => greater uncertainty reduction strategies
Greater recognition concerns => greater uncertainty reduction strategies
Greater self-efficacy => greater uncertainty reduction strategies*
Frequency of performing uncertainty reduction strategies => positive effect on self-disclosure
*Had the most influence on behavior
"Capital... is investment of resources with expected returns in the marketplace."
Nan Lin (2001)
"Social capital... is investment in social relations with expected returns in the marketplace"
(Lin, 2001, p.19)
distinct from human [knowledge & skills] and cultural [values & norms] capital which are resources invested and vested in individual actors.
More strategic than expressive
Cell phones dominate CMC
Texting not often used for information/cooperation
Devices rarely confined to single use
Channel pluralism, complement each other
Virtual Ties
strong-tie investments/bonding capital (maintaining existing supportive ties)
weak-tie investments/bridging capital (establishing new acquaintances)
network capital (informal relations - supplements)
participatory capital (involvement in politics and voluntary organizations - increases)
community commitment (community trust and engagement - undermines)
Internet Use & Social Capital
Online capital connected to leisure associations and high degree of trust in others.
No correlation of Internet use to maintain social capital with education, income, mobility, IT skill.
FtF substitution effect true only for those with moderate sociability (not true for those with low or high sociability).
Creating or renewing social capital correlated with younger, lower-educated, single => low opportunity cost of time.
Trust & Disclosure Online
Privacy concerns stifle online business.
Trust is most important influence on information disclosure.
Regard/liking for company increases trust/perceptions of expertise.
In which discursive spaces is public opinion being formed?
Dialectics
Participation vs. Marginalizaiton
Autonomy vs. Coercion
Rational debate vs. Propaganda
“There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”
- “This ‘telephone’ has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered as a means of communication. The device is inherently of no value to us.”
(Western Union internal memo, 1876)
-“640K ought to be enough for anybody” (Bill Gates, 1981)
-“I think there is maybe a world market for maybe five computers.”(Thomas Watson, chairman of IBM, 1943)
-Ken Olson, President, Chairman and Founder of Digital Equipment Co. 1977
Communication: defined as the process of structuring and interpreting messages through which meaning and social reality are created (Rubin, Rubin, & Piele, 1996).
CMC: refers to communication that takes place through computers either synchronously or asynchronously and may be text-based or multimedia-based.
Definition of CMC
Technopoly
Every technology is both a burden and a blessing.
Technology creates stratification, elitism.
Technology is not neutral, it does what it is designed to do (has a philosophy).
Postman: The Judgment of Thamus

Technology changes epistemology, defines what is real (is ecological).
Technologies tend to become mythic (seen as God-given)
New technology competes with old for worldview, creates new definitions of old terms.
Postman: The Judgment of Thamus
A society only loosely controlled by social customs and religious tradition and driven by the impulse to invent.
Knowledge is power
Humanity capable of progress
Moral and intellectual values are separate
Reason is realm of technology
Technocracy
The submission of all forms of cultural life to the sovereignty of technique and technology.
The emergence of technology as faith.
“… the deification of technology, which means that culture seeks its authorization in technology, finds its satisfactions in technology, and takes its orders from technology.”
Technopoly
“the application of rational methods to extend human capabilities to realize valued states in the material world.” (Funk, 2007)
Tech Update
Digital Imaging
Internet
Pros
environmentally friendly
accessibility (magazines, pictures, documents, etc.
enhances interactivity
increase quantity, memories, events captured
Cons
distortion potential
false sense of reality
loss of privacy
diminished value of tangible artifacts/records
Characterized by unawareness.
Technocrats had no intention of destroying traditional foundation of society.
Irony is that most inventions/tools were attempting to enhance society/tradition.
Technocracy Outcome
Unintended (ironic) Consequences
The primary, if not only, goal of human labor and thought is efficiency.
Technical calculation is in all respects superior to human judgment.
Human judgment cannot be trusted because of ambiguity, over-complexity.
Subjectivity is an obstacle to clear thinking.
What cannot be measured is of no value or does not exist (measurement/standardization).
The affairs of citizens are best guided by experts.
Beliefs of Technopoly
Connected by interests not proximity.
Judged by intellectual merits not physical appearance.
Convenience
Comfort
Speed
Unlimited by time & space.
Occupation, not Shalom
Values of Cyberspace
Erosion of traditional institutions.
Lack of foundation/order in worldview (is info a source of coherence or confusion/chaos?).
Blind acceptance of technology.
Context, continuity, purpose replaced by volume, speed, form.
Loss of control (meaning) mechanisms, replaced by technopoly mechanisms
Information Society
Language - questions
Zero – sign without value
Statistics – reification, ranking, & subjectivity
Polling
Management systems
Invisible Technologies
"Europeans, and especially to unthinking practical Englishmen, who are accustomed to take what modern political economists call 'the standard of living' as the test of the moral culture of a civilization of a people, the actual life of the Chinese and the people of the East at the present day, will no doubt appear very sordid and undesirable.... In order to estimate the value of a civilization, it seems to me, the question we must finally ask is not what great cities, what magnificent houses, what fine roads it has built...what beautiful and comfortable furniture, what clever and useful implements, tools and instruments it has made...no, not even what institutions, what arts and sciences it has invested; the question we must ask, in order to estimate the value of a civilization--is, what type of humanity, what kind of men and women it has been able to produce."      
Ku Hung-Mi, The Spirit of the Chinese People, 1922
Invisible technology
Information Business: manufacture & delivery of services and focus on either “conduit” or “content” of communication
Transportation: substituting comm. for transport (i.e., home entertainment, decentralized communities, teleconferencing, telecommuting)
Health Care: promoting positive attitudes about health care; return to home remedies thru empowering information (e.g., WebMD, centralized medical records)
Social Areas Impacted
Politics & Governance selling of political candidates; focus on image; public polling; comm. systems expand influence of gov’t compared to governance via transport
Work: nature and contexts of work are changing; location and hours (flex-time; info industry)
Education: change in how and where educ. will happen (e.g., online/hybrid/distance ed.)
Social Areas Impacted
Development & World Order: balance of access and share in communication pathways
Leisure: growing business; options increasing; TV still #1 - will it be replaced?
Social Areas Impacted
Societal Effects
Cyber Crime
http://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Cybercrime/Cybercrime
“Midday my first cave in (because of necessity) occurred. I got a text that read, "randi, are you okay? We have been trying to get a hold of you all day and wanted to make sure your phone call last night wasn't important." The comment made me chuckle internally at the fact that my mother thought I was in trouble because I had not gotten in touch with her for a half of a day… The rest of the day consisted of fighting off the urge to text some one and actually eating dinner by myself because I did not know how to get a hold of my friends.”
“I got up and instead of going to check my email like I normally do I sat on the couch not quite knowing what to do with myself. Usually I spend some time on the computer responding to emails and on Facebook catching up with friends… just in the first hour of being awake it stunned me to realize how much I am influenced without even thinking about it.”
"He is the most enslaved when he thinks he is comfortably settled in freedom."
Jacque Ellul, The Technological Society (p. xxxiii)
Changing workplace rules
flextime
telecommuting
remote reporting relationships
Globalization
eliminating spatial/geographic barriers w/in & b/t organizations
BYOD (Wired.com)
Bring Your Own Device corporate environment (platform independent)
Companies exert less control over where, when, how & on what device employees work
"most progressive companies are building entirely new business processes and policies with these new mobile and consumer technologies in mind."
taking an "adaptive approach to the changing work environment “work redesigned”... means a more inclusive, creative and collaborative workplace... greater mobility and flexibility... happier employees—improved employee satisfaction."
Carbon Nanotubes for semi-conductor chip development
4000 in a strand of human hair
Workplace Future Tech
Automatic
Medicine (e.g., Web MD)
Driving (Google car)
Warfare (e.g., drones)
Augmented reality (Google glass)
Displays on walls & furniture (e.g., telepresence robots, biometric security)
Machines carrying out self-assigned tasks
Telephony
: the electronic transmission of the voice from one distant party to another.
First Phone: Reis, 1861; Bell, 1876
First Wireless Phone: patent issued in 1906
How they work:
The telephone connection to your house has not changed in nearly a century. If you have an antique phone from the 1920’s, you could connect it to the wall jack in your house and it would work fine

You can dial a simple phone by rapidly tapping the hook switch -- all telephone switches still recognize "pulse dialing." If you pick the phone up and rapidly tap the switch hook four times, the phone company's switch will understand that you have dialed a "4."
Cell phones are actually radios. They broadcast their signals on radio frequencies

Cell phones operate on a duplex system, which uses two frequencies – one for talking or sending, and one for listening or receiving
Defined:
Conversion of analog data into binary code (pixels)
Resolution: # of ppi (WxH)
Products:
Maps/Google Earth
Digital picture frames
Radar
Billboards
iPods/cell phones
ebooks/digital paper
Common formats: gif, jpeg, png, tiff
Mobility?
5 tons in weight
500 miles of wiring
8 ft tall, 51 ft long
50ft rotating shaft running length powered by 5 hp electric motor.
Future?
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mVfCMcCLo5o#t=89
Display Tech
PCM - digital representation (recording) of analog signal using sampling technique developed in 1970s
MPEG layer 3 (MP3) is compression encoding-decoding technique capable of reducing audio file size (1992).
Prior to MP3, uncompressed .wav files were used (1 song used 20MB)
Downloading: from Napster to BitTorrent, iTunes, & Rhapsody.
30% of global sales; 50% of U.S. sales
Album
Acoustic
iTV/HDTV
Japan first to introduce (1970s)
1996 - first U.S. commercial broadcast
2009 - switchover from analog to HDTV
Interactive/Smart TV available in approx. 70% of U.S. homes
Cyber Warfare
Device Ownership
18+ yrs of age
SNS Use by Age
What are the marks of a native
versus an immigrant?
2013 PEW Findings
95% of teens online (hasn't changed since 2006)
74% access on mobile devices
37% own smartphone (up from 23% in 2011)
23% have tablets (compared to 25% of adults)
Kinds of Technology
material substance (e.g., tools)
knowledge (create, innovate)
practice (impacting everyday activities)
technique (strategic action toward goals)
society (agent that transforms society)
Broadband has revolutionized Internet use.

As people adopted higher-speed, always-on connections, they became different internet users:
spent more time online
performed more activities
watched more video
and became content creators
Mobile
Anytime, anywhere access
changes the way people think about how & when we communicate and gather information
makes just-in-time & real-time encounters possible
affects allocation of time & attention
Social + Media
Social networks in technology spaces
Affected how we think about friends, acquaintances, even strangers
persistent, pervasive
blurred boundaries b/t public-private, work-home, consumer-producer
Technology ought to facilitate and not hinder our communion with God and the fulfillment of our moral obligations to Him.
Technology ought to facilitate and not hinder the preservation of human life and improvement of human welfare and the fulfillment of our moral obligations to people.
Technology ought to facilitate and not hinder the preservation of the natural world and its order and integrity and the fulfillment of our moral obligations to God's lower creation.
“Do not be conformed any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind. Then you will be able to test and approve what God’s will is – His good, pleasing, and perfect will.” (Rom. 12:2)
“Let us therefore make every effort to do what leads to peace and to mutual edification…” (Rom. 14:19)
“Search me, O’ God, and know my heart; test me and know my anxious thoughts. See if there is any offensive way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.” (Psa. 139:23-24).
Traditions vs. Technology
Listening vs. messaging
Shalom (peace/rest/free from distraction)
Proportion/balance
Foster shared memory, caring practices, mutual accountability
Good judgment and responsibility
Decentralization vs. Recentralization
Fragmentation vs. Integration
Diversity vs. Homogenization
Access to info vs. Proprietary info
Originality versus "Collaboration"
Increased freedom vs. Increased surveillance
Enfranchisement vs. Social stratification
Agency vs. being "subject to"
Implications of a Networked World
Digital Divide
Discrepancies between social groups in access to, use of, and empowerment by ICTs.
The Umbrella Perspective
Switch
Diode
semiconductor device that allows current to pass through it in only one direction.
Resistor/diode
Conductor
low resistance material to provide a path for electrical current.
Circuit
connected components to perform objective; requires energy source, conductors, load device
Integrated circuit
placement of numerous components and circuits on a chip
Currently silicon based
Microprocessor
CPU that is manufactured on a single integrated-circuit chip
Semi-conductor
Any of various solid crystalline substances such as silicon, gallium arsenide, or germanium having electrical conductivity greater than insulators but less than conductors.
Transistor
A small electronic semiconductor device having at least three electrical contacts, used in a circuit as an amplifier or a switch.
Binary
In electronics, a number system that has two as its base; therefore any position has only two possible values, 0 or 1. A signal that has only two possible states at any instance.
Bit
A single binary digit, can be either a 0 or 1.
Byte
A group of eight binary bits, commonly used to represent digital data.
Digital
Refers to signals/circuits that are binary, meaning they have only two states (high/low, on/off, o/1).
Policy Interventions:
CANARIE - Canadian Advanced Network for Industry & Education
E-Rate - U.S. subsidized program to provide inexpensive ICTs in public classrooms/libraries
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Access Divide
Type of access
Location of access
Frequency of use
Skills Divide
Technical competence
Information literacy
Global Divide
Poor infrastructure
Fixed lines, Cell phones, Internet penetration, Broadband access
Economic barriers
Illiteracy
Poor computing skills
Lack of tech support
Cultural barriers
Current leaves
Current enters
Integrated Circuit
- the placement of numerous components and circuits on to a silicon chip.
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