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Copy of Indroduction to BONDING

The following lesson offers an introduction to the different types of chemical bonding chiefly ionic bonding & covalent bonding.
by

vicki chudy

on 9 February 2011

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Transcript of Copy of Indroduction to BONDING

An Introduction to Chemical Bonding Lets Review IONS - electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms A postively (+) charged ion is called a CATION The letter "t" in CA"T"ion looks like a positive (+) plus sign +: ca+ion
Cations are pawsitive.
Cations give away electrons = "giving" is a "+" thing to do This electron is LOST Now the Sodium Ion
has 8 outer electrons Question?
What is a cation afraid of? A dogion! Periodic Table Showing the number of valence (outer) electrons for selected elements.
The number of valence electrons corresponds to the group number LOOK!
The number of
dots... the number of
valence electrons! A negatively (-) charged ion is called an ANION Anions are negative (-)
ANIONS: AN(egative)ION
"A" "Negative" "ION"
Anions take or "steal" electrons = "stealing" is a "-" negaitve thing to do! Look! Cations are on the right side
of the period table! Anions are on the left side
of the periodic table! You need to know that METALS generally form CATIONS
& NON-METALS generally form ANIONS!!
Lets look at WHY? Sodium (metal) becomes a cation Fluorine (non-metal) becomes an anion This electron is gained Now the fluorine ion
has 8 outer electrons The octet rule says that atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons so as to have eight electrons in their outer electron shell.

How will each of these atoms form ions (gain or lose electrons) to to obtain 8 valence (outer) electrons? PRACTICE:
1. What is the charge on a Mg (Magnesium) ion? Answer: 2+ 2. Which of the following elements forms a
cation?
a. calcium b. chlorine c. fluorine d. oxygen Answer: calcium 3. How many valence electrons does chlorine have? Answer: 7 valence electrons Steps to detemining what type of ion is formed:
Lets take Barium (Ba) as an example-

1. Identify the Group it belongs to:
Boron is in Group 2A

2. Idenify the # of valenece electrons:
Boron is in Group 2A, so it has 2 valence electrons

3. Will it lose or gain electrons to obtain a stable octet?
Barium will lose 2 electrons to become Ba 2+ Lets learn about BONDING!
What do you remember from the video?
Whare are the two types of bonds we learned about and talked about in the lab? COVALENT BONDS IONIC BONDS Transfer of Electrons Shared Electrons In an IONIC bond, electrons are lost or gained, resulting in the formation of IONS in ionic compounds. NOW: lets organize what we have learned about Ionic and Covalent Bonds! We are going to make a T-chart called:

"Characteristics of Ionic & Covalent Compounds"

This will be a "Reference Sheet" for your notebook.

You will hand in your completed sheet for a grade! Ionic Compounds Covalent Compounds Transfer of electrons Share electrons Ionic Na + Cl - Mg 2+ O 2- Covalent Ionic Contain positive
& negative ions Exist as neutral molecules
(NO CHARGE!) Ionic Covalent Solids
Hard Solids - not
easily crushed Solids, Liquids, or Gases
Soft Solids - easily crushed Example:
NaCl (table salt) Example:
Sugar Ionic Covalent High melting & boiling points Lower melting and boiling points Ionic substances melt & boil at very high temperatures.

***Remember: in the video they tried to melt solid salt, and it did not melt! Ionic Covalent STRONG FORCE of attraction between particles WEAKER FORCES between molecules NaCl-strong crystal lattice Conducts electricity (ionic compounds separate into charged particles
when dissolved in water to give a solution that
conducts electricity)
WE SAW THIS IN THE LAB!
EXAMPLES: Solid Salt, Solid Pedialyte!!! NOT conductors (covalent compounds remain as the same molecues in water and will not conduct electricty. They DO NOT form ions!) Solid Sugar does not conduct and sugar did not conduct when we dissolved it in water! Ionic Covalent Non-metal combines with a Metal Metals combine with Metals
Non-metals combine with Non-metals
Non-metals combine with Metals "Characteristics of Ionic &
Covalent Compounds" Covalent Ionic Covalent
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