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19th C Public schools impact - Phase 3 , Girls' Public Schools and export
Transcript of 19th C Public schools impact - Phase 3 , Girls' Public Schools and export
Manliness, Muscular Christianity
The Spread and Export of Athleticism
Colonialists / diplomats
Clubs / competitions
Spread of Athleticism – aide memoire
Increase _ _ _ _ _ _ of the workforce
Introduce workers to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ values
Reduce illness and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Keep the workers out of the _ _ _ _
Increased _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of the workforce
Encouraged the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of the workers to become involved
Why would public school ‘old boys’ introduce sport to their workers?
Old boys and old girls
Students of Oxford and Cambridge
Industrialists / Business
MPs / Local government
Many girls’ schools modelled themselves on boys schools
Later emphasis on games
Inter-form, Inter-House and School matches
Shared idea that games could develop moral qualities
“Your girls play like gentlemen and behave like ladies”
Why would the girls avoid male sports?
Girls’ Public Schools
Frances Buss 1860 founded North London Collegiate School and Camden School for Girls.
Dorothea Beale – transformed Cheltenham Ladies College in to an esteemed school for upper class girls
Madame Osterberg – 1881 became Lady Superintendent for PE in London – founded the first full time specialist PE college for women at Dartford
Girls’ Public School Athleticism
Traditional role of women – education of women was a threat to the norms of society
Anxiety over the wearing of slightly revealing clothing
Status of women in society – not seen as necessary to give equal opps – so girls’ schools that did exist concentrated on dancing, music etc.
Societal expectations – thought inappropriate for women to be competitive or too lively
Medical concerns – belief that exercise could complicate / prevent child birth
Perceived physical inferiority – concerns that girls could not cope with physical demands of robust sports
Reasons for the delay in the development of Girls’ Athleticism
Cheltenham Ladies College, St Leonard's, Roedean
At Roedean: hockey, tennis, cricket, running, fencing
Developed much later than the boys’ schools due to bias against girl’s education
Not seen as appropriate for females to engage in vigorous activity
Hockey introduced as it did not reflect the popular elements of football
Girls’ Public Schools
At the end of his school career, Tom captains the school XI in a match against MCC
Evidence of Technical developments
Explanation of Social Relationships
Evidence of values being reinforced
TBS ‘The Cricket Match’
It did not require the physicality of football
It did not require the teamwork / cooperation of cricket
It had the reputation of being suitable only for girls
As a new invention it was treated with suspicion
It occupied a large space for few boys
Why did the boys’ Public Schools reject lawn tennis as a serious activity?
What physical or temperamental qualities
were encouraged through the playing of these games?
Fives, Racquets, Squash
The ‘Ducker’ at Harrow… ‘swimming, diving and racing of all kinds is practised’ Important for hygiene, safety and recreation
Athleticism was physical endeavour and moral integrity
Athletics has a physical element
It was respectable, organised by respectable people
It was without corruption / wagering
It had moral components, fair play, sportsmanship, bravery / courage
It had a strong social component, representing a team, the House or School
How did athletics express athleticism?
How did athletics express athleticism?
What changed / developed ?
The sand of the desert is sodden red,-
Red with the wreck of a square that broke;-
The Gatling’s jammed and the Colonel dead,
And the regiment blind with dust and smoke.
The river of death has brimmed his banks,
And England’s far, and Honour a name,
But the voice of a schoolboy rallies the ranks;
‘ Play up! Play up! And play the game!’
There’s a breathless hush in the Close tonight -
Ten to make and the match to win-
A bumping pitch and a blinding light,
An hour to play and the last man in.
And it’s not for the sake of a ribboned coat,
Or the selfish hope of a season’s fame,
But his Captain’s hand on his shoulder smote:
‘Play up! Play up! And play the game!’
What values were being encouraged through organised sport?
Games…. a preparation for a leadership role in society
Cooperation, conforming with authority
Providing opportunities for leadership, sportsmanship, gentlemanly behaviour, Christian gentlemen
“to promote a race of robust men, with active habits, brisk circulations, manly sympathies and exuberant spirits”
Games seen as character building
“… games were a preparation for the battle of life.”
“… battle training took place on the playing field.”
“… games encouraged valuable social qualities and manly virtues.”
“Physical endeavour and moral integrity”
“…the exaltation of and disproportionate regard of games, which often resulted in the denigration of academic work and in anti-intellectualism.”
(W. David Smith)
“the nineteenth century witnessed a growth of athleticism in Public Schools remarkable alike for its technical developments and for its social significance.”
The Cult of ATHLETICISM
Physical endeavour and moral integrity”
The second half of the 19thC gave rise to the spread of middle class schools who copied the Public Schools:
e.g.Cheltenham College, Malvern College, Clifton College and Repton College
To review developments in Public Schools during phase 1 and phase 2
To extend knowledge to Phase 3 – ATHLETICISM as a Cult
To develop understanding of cultural influences on Public schools in second half of 19th C – industrialisation and Victorian values
To explore girls’ experiences of athleticism in a social context
To outline the way athleticism was spread.
Only a small proportion of children went to Public Schools in the 19th century.
How do you account for the rapid spread of athleticism from the schools to all branches of British society and throughout the World?
The Spread and Export of Athleticism
Public School education developed later for girls
Promoting physical health, ‘ a healthy mind, healthy body’
Overcoming temptation for studying too hard
Toughening up in an indulgent society
Competitive experience in a competitive society
Social cohesion, teamwork, working together
Preventing anti-social activities
Encouraging fair play, sportsmanship
Conforming with authority
Loyalty and honour
Leadership qualities and response to leadership
Character building, ‘Muscular Christians’
Athleticism : Physical endeavour + moral integrity
“… in football it was more important to show courage and stamina and an ability to withstand knocks without flinching than to exhibit ball control, and at cricket the qualities praised were not so much skill in wielding the bat as trials of character revealed in facing up to a fast bowler in bad conditions of pitch and light”
The public schoolboy was expected to have a well rounded character, impeccable manners and enviable personal qualities. Furthermore having led a team on the playing field it was assumed that he could lead a regiment on the battlefield.
PS created men who would be “acceptable at a dance and invaluable in the shipwreck”
How was this to be achieved?
Wanted to reform the schools
wanted to stop the hooligan behaviour of the boys
…wanted to improve relationships between staff & boys
…wanted to stop bullying and brutality
..wanted to produce ‘Christian gentlemen’
Mob activities brought into School from home
Physical strength and courage admired
Bullying and fagging were rife
Masters left the boys to themselves
Mob Games and Field Sports
The games in Phase 1 “were entirely organised by the boys and ranged from the relative sedateness of cricket to the violence of mob football, from illegal poaching to organised hare and hounds, from casual boating to rackets in the quad”
Arnold and the liberal heads
ATHLETICISM = physical endeavour and moral integrity
Who were these people? Why were they so influencial?
Girls' Public Schools
Why was it seen as inappropriate for girls to engage in sport in Victorian society?
Reform - but why and how?
Public Schools - Phase 3
Export of Athleticism
What happened ?
Gave the 6th form responsibility/raised status of prefects
Used games for social control
Set up inter-house competitions
Made chapel centre of school life
Encouraged better relationships
Forbade trespassing / kept boys on site
Institutionalised Popular Recreations
Regularity of play, kit, equipment
Purpose built facilities
Rules and regulations
Fixtures against local clubs and schools
Oxbridge ‘blues’ as assistant masters
Obsession with games
Physical: agility, strength, endurance, skill, health
Temperamental: cohesion, loyalty, self-control, respect,
decision-making, competitive experience
Do you know the characteristics of 3 phases of Public Schools?
Can you outline what happened during Phase3 - what changes occurred in relation to sports/physical activities
Why did this all occur?
What about the Girls - can you explain what happened to Girls' athleticism?
Athleticism was exported from the schools to the country and the world - can you explain how?
What social changes brought about this expansion?